100 mcqs of psychology … nothing less than a+ grade will be

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclose ed answer sheet) 

1.When there is a discussion of “theory” as related to judgments of right and wrong the discussion is probably one of: 

b.philosophical morality 

c.professional ethics 

d.philosophical ethics 

e.common morality 

f.both band d 

2.Which of the following is NOT listed in your text as part of the professional structure which governs ethics for counselors? 

a.the courts 

b.colleges and universities 

c.professional organizations that maintain and enforce a mandatory code of ethics 

d.professional regulatory bodies that are enforcers of mandatory codes 

e.none of the above 

3.The BEST place to find up-to-date information of currently accepted ethical practice in the field is: 

a.counseling journals 

b.the Internet 

c.state I icense boards 

d.graduate level textbooks 

e.all of the above 

4. can be defined as: the extent and limits of activities considered acceptable by individuals licensed or certified in a profession or specialty. 

a.Scope of practice 

b.Malpractice 

c.Accreditation 

d.none of the above 

5. Which of the following is the accrediting body for professional counseling? 

 

a. AMA 

b. AAMFT 

c. NASW 

d. ACA 

e. CACREP 

 

 6. The oldest established mental health profession is: 

a.psychiatry 

b.social work 

c.marriage and fam i Iy therapy 

d.psychiatric nursing 

e.psychotherapy 

7.Which of the following degrees does NOT indicate legitimate doctoral level training to be a Iicensed Psychologist? 

 

a. Ph.D. 

b. Ed.D. 

c. M.D. 

d. Psy.D 

8. Which professional organization represents marriage and family therapists? 

 

a. ACA 

b. AAMFT 

c. APA 

d. ABPS 

e. none of the above 

9.Which professional(s) can NOT legitimately, by nature of standard training and practice, perform psychometric assessment? 

a.marriage and fam i Iy therapist 

b.counselor 

c.psychologist 

d.social worker 

e.none of the above 

10. The ABPP and ASPS credential applies to which field of mental health specialty? 

a.Marriage and family therapy 

b.Social work 

c.Psych iatry 

d.Psychiatric nursing 

e.none of the above 

h.

 

1l. Informed consent generally requires that the counselor should reveal to the client information about: 

a.the counselor’s credentials or training. 

b.alternative treatments. 

c.the potential benefits or detriments of treatment. 

d.all of the above 

12. A counselor’s primary responsibility is to the: 

a.third party referral source. 

b.judge who subpoenas a case file. 

c.family of a competent adult client seen in individual counseling. 

d.professional setting (employer) where the counselor works. 

e.none of the above 

13. Which of the following IS FALSE? 

a.The primary responsibility of the counselor is to the referral source. 

b.Nonprofessional counselor-cl ient relationshi ps shou Id be avoided when possi ble. 

c.Services must be fully described and explained to clients before they consent to treatment. 

d.Sexual intimacy with clients is unethical. 

 

14. Professional competence by definition involves: 

a.the quality of provided services 

b.informed consent 

c.confidentiality 

d.boundaries of professional activity 

e.both a and d 

15. Which of the following statements is TRUE? 

a.Counselors can ethically practice any specialty in counseling, even without appropriate 

specialty training, if it is within the scope of practice of their license. 

b.Cottone and Tarvydas believe the terms “dual” and “multiple” relationships should be abandoned. 

c.Avoiding detrimental relationships with clients relates to the ethical principle of justice more than non maleficence. 

d.People who refuse recommended counseling services must be coerced. 

i.

 

16.When a judge orders an ex offender to undergo therapy as part of the ex offender’s rehabilitation, this is called: 

a.expert order of protection 

b.legal privilege 

c.professional responsibi I ity 

d.compulsory therapy 

17.The Supreme Court decision in Jaffee v. Redmond provided what type of assistance to psychotherapists in federal court cases? 

a.eliminated their responsibility to testify as expert witnesses 

b.upheld their abi I ity to mai ntain confidential information through assertion of legal privi- 

lege 

c.eliminated their ability to assert privilege in communication with clients 

d.instructed counselors that privi lege only exists between attorneys and their cl ients, not 

between counselors and their clients 

18.Which of the following is an example of special circumstances that counselors may be faced with in relation to confidentiality and privilege? 

a.counseling persons with HIV/AIDS 

b.family/couples counseling 

c.clients in drug/alcohol treatment 

d.all of the above 

 

19.An exception to confidentiality for psychologists and counselors serving in the military exists and focuses on which area most clearly? 

a.responsi bi I ity to report generally negative attitudes of officers and enl isted personnel 

b.report threats to military installations, weapons and integrity even when threats to specific persons have not been made 

c.to report all counseling activities regardless of the content to their superiors on a regular basis 

d.none of the above 

20.According to Welch (2003), one of the most common types of malpractice liability in treatment services for mental health professionals is: 

a.fraudulent billing 

b.family treatment and forensic situations 

c.dual relationships 

d.group counseling 

 

21.According to Arthur and Swanson (1993). clinical records should be written to include which of the followi ng? 

a.clear objective statements with behavioral descriptions 

b.professional terminology not easily interpreted by legal counsel 

c.jargon that does not clearly specify behavioral outcomes 

d.little objective information; subjective thoughts of the counselor are of most importance 

22.When assessing a client’s potential for harm, Beauchamp and Childress recommend the counselor assess primarily which elements? 

a.probabi I ity of harm 

b.magnitude of harm 

c.physical vs. psychological nature of harm 

d.both a and b are correct 

23. Counselor values tend to determine the of counseling. 

a.content 

b.process 

c.level of professional ism 

d.lack of progress 

24. Client values determine the of counseling. 

a.process 

b.level of progress 

c.content 

d.all of the above 

25.Objectively applying a system of ethical rules and principles that a counselor may use to determine a right or moral decision about an ethical dilemma would be considered _ 

a.ethics of caring 

b.virtue ethics 

c.principle ethics 

d.none of the above 

k.

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 

1.Why is practice in solving mock ethical dilemmas, as well as working to address actual dilemmas under supervision of an educator or experienced clinician important? 

a.Because ethical decision making skills are very easily learned. 

b.Ethical situations happen infrequently and counselors shouldn’t worry so much about them. 

c.Ethical decision making skills do not come automatically or easily and require practice, supervision and diligence in learning. 

d.Because you will never be able to come up with the “correct” answer. 

2.The ethical decision-making model introduced by Cottone is based upon what theoretical model? 

a.general psychologically based models 

b.post-positivism 

c.social constructivism 

d.none of the above 

3. What does social constructivism mean to ethical decision making? 

a.Decisions cannot be viewed as occurring internally (by an individual in isolation). 

b.Decisions must be selected by the counselor weighing internal feelings and cognitions. 

c.Decisions are best when made by a single individual. 

d.Counselors must deliberate over a decision for a lengthy period of time. 

4.Ethical decision making models often provide a series of steps for making an ethical choice, however they may fail to describe which of the following: 

a.the consequences that can occur when an ineffective course of action is taken 

b.how the choice in a specific course of action occurs (an exploratory framework for the decision process itself) 

c.how values are weighed by the decision maker 

d.a II of the above are correct 

5.In the social constructivism model, the decision to breach an ethical standard or a challenge to a counselor’s professional ethics is a decision that is derived from past and present interactions. Which of the following forces come into play in this situation? 

a.biological and social forces that affect interactions in one way or the other 

b.biological forces 

c.social forces 

d.psychological determinants 

m.

6.According to the social constructivism process in ethical decision making, when consensualizing fails, then parties may engage in reflective interaction to accomplish: 

a.an agreement on the decision to be made 

b.to determine whether arbitration should be undertaken 

c.be able to make the decision on their own 

d.to hold firm to their original position 

7. Cottone’s model of ethical decision making is based on: 

a.purely social-relational theory 

b.purely relational model 

c.ethical principles 

d.psychologically-based ethical decision making 

8.When colleagues engage in bullying, harassment, or emotional abuse of an individual within the workplace, this would be described as: 

a.a normal difference of opinion that occasionally occurs within a workplace 

b.a case of mobbing within an organizational culture 

c.relational issues that are normal when people work closely with one another 

d.individuals who are experiencing conflict due to holding similar values 

9. Which of the following characteristics may place a work environment at risk for mobbing? 

a.having more staff than is necessary (overstaffing) 

b.increased stress in the workplace 

c.unethical activities 

d.both band c are correct 

10.Several states have acknowledged that mental injury can result from excessive stress on the job and this phenomenon has been called: 

a.mental health injury 

b.overstress syndrome 

c.organizational mental injury 

d.occupational mental injury 

n.

11. Wh ich of the following may happen to a counselor that assumes the role of a “whistleblower”? 

a.mobbing 

b.mixed support from superiors and administration 

c.potential life changing experience and increased stress 

d.all of the above 

12.At present there are several corporations that are establishing company policies that support an individual’s right to be employed in an environment that is free from mobbing. 

a.True, this is happening at present. 

b.False that is something for the future. 

c.False, it would never work. 

d.none of the above are correct 

13.The way people would characterize a system’s general practices and procedures, such as the sense of safety or fear or retribution that a counselor may feel when faced with big or small decisions within this context would be described as? 

a.climate 

b.ethical climate 

c.organizational climate 

d.none of the above 

14.To provide a service outside of the realm of medical psychotherapy and then bill it as medical psychotherapy is an example of: 

a.sliding fee scales 

b.fraudulent billing 

c.double billing 

d.all of the above 

15. Pro bono publico refers to what? 

a.Working as a counselor for the state, or county and serving the general public. 

b.Being an expert witness at a criminal trial. 

c.A Spanish speaking Counselor or Therapist. 

d.none of the above 

o.

 

16.This term describes when a diagnosis is more severe than diagnostically justified to ensure adequate insurance payment for the anticipated treatments. 

a.double billing 

b.overdiagnosis 

c.fraudulent diagnostics 

d.embellishment diagnostics 

e.none of the above 

17.It is standard practice to destroy case records generally years after services have 

been terminated. 

a.10-12 

b.2-4 

c.5-7 

d.none of the above- by law case records are never to be destroyed. 

18. Areas of major ethical concern in working with people with HIV include: 

a.confidentiality 

b.informed consent 

c.stigma 

d.both a and b are correct 

19.The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 and the Americans with Disabilities Act do Which of the following for individuals diagnosed with HIV/AIDS? 

a.protect individuals who are diagnosed with HIVIAIDS from undue discrimination 

b.do not protect individuals with HIV/AIDS from undue discrimination 

c.protect only individuals with HIV from undue discrimination 

d.protect only individuals with AIDS from undue discrimination 

20.The Tarasoff outcome directs the counselor in which of the following actions when considering the safety of a th ird party? 

a.counselors are not responsible for warning third parties they may be in danger 

b.counselors have a responsibility for third parties that they know may be in danger 

c.cannot breach confidentiality no matter what the situation 

d.may breach confidentiality only when suicide is involved 

p.

 

2l. Regarding the ethical issues surrounding complimentary and alternative medicine, which of the following statements is true? 

a.The current status quo does not include a “don’t ask/don’t tell” approach. 

b.CAM advocates may be denying the role of traditional medicine. 

c.Managed care typically never reimburses for CAMs. 

d.I ndividuals who choose CAMs as a treatment forfeit their right to autonomy. 

22. What percentage of Americans feel that abortion should be legal in some form? 

a.25 

b.45 

c.70 

d.90 

23.A type of test administration that especially does not transfer well to computerized assessment is: 

a.vocational interest testing 

b.aptitude testing 

c.neuropsychological testing 

d.personality testing 

24. An ethical concern in the area of distance education at present is: 

a.lack of an outcome research base comparing traditional and distance education methods 

b.it has been proven that distance education lacks program integrity 

c.grades which are granted for courses 

d.none of the above are correct answers 

25.The most frequent strategies that unethical practitioners use to get around the ethical 

standards that exist in the area of web counseling are: 

a.not holding membership in professional organizations that create standards that 

are enforceable 

b.using unregulated titles or service descriptions to elude regulatory authorities 

c.not charging a fee for web counseling services 

d.both a and b are correct answers 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 

1.Counselors should critically examine current ethical codes focusing on multiculturalism to 

address which of the following? 

a.cultural bias and encapsulation 

b.professional self regulation and lack of measurable multicultural accountability 

c.favoritism toward the dominant culture 

d.all of the above 

2.These terms are outdated and possibly harmful concepts, but were previously used in 

counselor training programs several decades ago. 

a.cu Itural deficit 

b.race 

c.cu Iturally disadvantaged 

d.a and conly 

e.all of the above 

3.The tendency to treat others relative to one’s own cu Itural perspective with an apparent disregard for cultural differences is called: 

a.cultural encapsulation 

b.cultural deficit 

c.multiculturalism 

d.none of the above 

4.As a third generation Japanese American counselor in a downtown mental health center that 

serves a primarily African American population you are frequently involved in helping 

relationships with individuals who have a socially constructed worldview that differs from your 

own. You would be providing this type of counseling: 

 

a. conservative 

b. transcultural. 

c. client centered 

d. primary 

e. cross cultural 

5.To educate culturally competent practitioners entering the field, educational programs should 

strongly consider uti I izi ng the best approach of: 

a. 

b. 

c. 

d. 

e. 

186 

 

 

offering a course on racism and infusing culturally sensitive content throughout the 

curriculum 

offering a course on multiculturalism 

not concerning themselves with culture and multicultural competencies 

making sure students have exceptional knowledge of the professional code of ethics 

none of the above 

 

s.

 

6. Imperative to the field of marriage and family therapy is the idea of: 

a.psychoanalytic theory 

b.the ‘traditional’ family 

c.sex therapy 

d.none of the above 

7.Ethically marriage and family therapists are wise to initially consider their role as an advocate 

for the: 

a.relationship 

b.child 

c.individual 

d.all of the above 

8.The idea of was affirmed by the Declaration of Helsinki, after Nazi doctors at 

concentration camps were found to have done harmful experiments on ethnic groups. 

a.moral responsibility 

b.confidential ity 

c.informed consent 

d.Hippocratic Oath 

e.all of the above 

9.The ethical codes of which two organizations apply SPECIFICALLY to marriage and family 

counseling? 

a.IAMFC and ASCA 

b.APA and ACA 

c.APA and ASCA 

d.IAMFC and AAMFC 

e.IAMFC and AAMFT 

10. Values are: 

a.imposed by ethical codes on such issues as divorce, sexuality, and family resource 

management 

b.unquestionable professional ethical standards 

c.the legal rights of clients 

d.none of the above 

187 

 

t.

 

11.Which is NOT one of the interventions which schools counselors use to provide direct services 

in their schools? 

a.coordination 

b.consu Itation 

c.counseling 

d.cooperation 

e.none of the above 

12. Arnold v. Board of Education of Escambia County (1989) was a court decision regarding what? 

a.a counselor giving a student advice on abortion 

b.a counselor having inappropriate sexual relations with a student 

c.a counselor withholding information about a threat which was made from a client towards 

another person which resulted in that person’s death 

d.a counselor failing to notify authorities of a student’s intent of suicide 

e.none of the above 

13.In determining what action a counselor should take in ethical dilemmas presented by poten- 

tially detrimental relationships, which step to come to a conclusion is NOT listed in your text? 

a.think carefully 

b.consult the necessary codes and experts 

c.identify the ethical issues 

d.temporarily suspend the relationship until a conclusion is made 

e.none of the above 

14.The intent of the was to provide parents and eligible students (those 

older than 18 years of age) the right to inspect their school records and the protection of dis- 

semination of school records. 

a.Drug Abuse Office and Treatment Act 

b.Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act 

c.Education for all Handicapped Children Act 

d.Individual Education Disability Act 

15.Approximately how many states grant students the legal right of privileged communication 

when communicating with a school counselor? 

a.10 

b.20 

c.30 

d.40 

188 

 

u.

 

16.When considering a school counselor’s duty to warn and protect, which of the following state- 

ments is true? 

a.Counselors may be sued if they breach confidentiality, if a student injures themselves or 

someone else or commits suicide. 

b.Counselors cannot breach confidentiality ever. 

c.Counselors may be sued by the school if they breach confidentiality with parents. 

d.Counselors will not be sued unless they breach confidentiality. 

17.According to the American School Counselor Association, failure to provide the needed food, 

care, clothing, housing, medical attention and supervision of a child would be defined as: 

a.child abuse 

b.corporal punishment 

c.child neglect 

d.child endangerment 

18. Managed care is usually a contracted arrangement between atn): 

a.client and a counselor 

b.social service agency and a client 

c.counselor and employer 

d.none of the above 

19. RUST stands for: 

a.Rehabi I itation Users Standards of Treatment 

b.Redefining Undiagnosed or Subtle Terms 

c.Responsibilities of Using Standardized Treatments 

d.Relinquishing Use of Standardized Tests 

e.none of the above 

20. The evolution of career counseling has been influenced by which of the following? 

a.social and cultural forces 

b.legislation 

c.programs created as a result of legislation 

d.all of the above 

189 

 

v.

 

 

 

 

21.Counsel i ng that involves professional helpers who hel p cl ients “understand, accept, and 

resolve their problems” by using “basic counseling techniques so that their clients can lead 

more satisfying, well adjusted lives” would best define? 

a.psychoanalysis 

b.personal counseling 

c.career counseling 

d.vocational counseling 

22. Which of the following is NOT one of the three required elements of informed consent? 

a.capacity 

b.comprehension 

c.confidential ity 

d.voluntariness 

23.As a counselor if the ethical values at your place of employment are in conflict with your 

professional ethics, what should you do? 

a.stay on the job because there are some things you cannot change 

b.talk with your co-workers about their thoughts 

c.seriously consider resigning from your position 

d.nothing, for there is nothing you can do about corporate culture 

24.According to Pope (1999) when clients first present for career counseling it is important to 

assess how much involvement of both is needed by the client in 

their decision making process. 

a.former employer and family 

b.potential employer and former employer 

c.significant other and children 

d.extended family and community 

25.Counselors should be aware of potentially detrimental counselor-client relationships and can 

safeguard themselves by taking which of the following actions? 

a.ongoing discussions to identify and work through conflicts or concerns that develop and 

documentation of all events 

b.consultation with a colleague to guard against overlooking a problem 

c.supervision if a situation involves a high risk for harm 

d.all of the above are safeguards that counselors should consider 

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet) 

1. Groups or group process may: 

a.differ depending on the national origin of group members 

b.be enhanced by the acceptance of differences among group members 

c.be enhanced by a culturally sensitive counselor 

d.all of the above 

2. Related to privileged communication and group counseling, privileged communication: 

a.can be guaranteed in all cases with a licensed professional 

b.historically has been respected in group counseling 

c.prevents gossip about cases to uninvolved third parties in informal settings 

d.none of the above 

3. Group counseling: 

a.is practiced only in private practices 

b.is a specialty of counseling meeting all standard criteria for defining a specialty 

c.always is led by at least two counselors 

d.band conly 

e.none of the above 

4. If a group of minors is being counseled, the parents of the minors: 

a.must respect the counselor/client privilege of confidentiality 

b.have the right to information about the nature and content of counseling 

c.have the right to attend a group session as a chaperone 

d.both band c 

e.none of the above 

5. The CRC code of ethics clearly asserts that the primary responsibility of counselors is to whom? 

a.their employer 

b.their supervisor 

c.individuals with disabilities receiving services 

d.third party payor 

 

6.If the counselor holds the culturally dominant high level of value regarding traditional work, 

he or she may not react positively to individuals who wish to work in which area? 

a.factory settings 

b.in-home as caregivers 

c.only part time to pursue avocational interests 

d.both band c are correct 

7. Which of the following are areas in which rehabilitation counselors monitor their competence? 

a.job development, placement and follow-up 

b.integration of mental health counseling or diagnostic focus with their usual practices 

c.competence in the area of assessment 

d.both band c are correct 

8. CRCC provides code of ethics enforcement for which of the following? 

a.individuals who hold the CRC certification. 

b.individual members of ACA and ARCA. 

c.individual members of NRA and NRCA. 

d.individuals who hold a CCM certification. 

9. Major change within the 200112002 CRCC code of ethics had to do with what subject(s)? 

a.major emphasis on multicultural considerations 

b.new continuing education requirements 

c.addition of an entire section on electronic communication 

d.established dollar limits for billing of services 

e.both a and c 

10.The collaborative consorti um of key rehabiIitation counseling professional organ izations formed in 2004 is the: 

a.Alliance for Rehabilitation Counseling 

b.Rehabilitation Counseling Cooperative 

c.National Rehabi I itation Association 

d.American Rehabilitation Counselors United 

e.none of the above 

 

11. The two major professional organizations for rehabilitation counselors are: 

 

a. ARCA and NRCA 

b. ACA and ARCA 

c. APA and NRCA 

d. ARCAA and N RC 

e. none of the above 

12.According to your text, nearly of the U.S. population needed treatment for an alcohol 

or illicit drug problem in 2003. 

a.8 

b.10 

c.12 

d.15 

e.none of the above 

13.This organization is the largest organization serving addiction counselors, educators, and other health care professionals who deal with addiction. 

 

a. NAADC 

b. ACA 

c. APA 

d. NAADAC 

e. none of the above 

14. Confidentiality in treatment of chemical dependency is unique due to: 

a.state statute confidential ity 

b.national professional certification 

c.state professional certification 

d.none of the above 

15. The 12-step approach of Alcohol ics Anonymous has been: 

a.discredited by the majority of professionals because of the religious nature of the program 

b.shown to ONLY be effective when combined with professional interventions 

c.proven to be effective not only with treating alcoholism, but with other addictions as well 

d.none of the above 

 

16.What is the NBCC specialty designation for counseling professionals who work primarily with addiction? 

a.MACC 

b.NBCCA 

c.NAADAC 

d.none of the above 

17.Which is NOT a setti ng listed in your text in wh ich substance abuse treatment may be delivered? 

a.outpatient setting 

b.residential 

c.hospital 

d.all of the above are settings listed 

18.How many of the criteria for substance dependence must be present for the diagnosis of alcohol or drug dependence? 

a.two 

b.three 

c.four 

d.five 

e.none of the above 

19. The ACS identifies content areas that training in clinical supervision must include. 

a.5 

b.9 

c.13 

d.26 

20. Related to potential ethical situations, supervisors often have which of the following concerns? 

a.most code of professional ethics have limited information regarding supervision 

b.the supervisor must constantly examine the ethical issues that impact both the client and the supervisee 

c.regulations for clinical supervisors provided are ambiguous from a legal perspective 

d.both a and b are correct 

 

21.A student counselor is providing services to a client and audiotapes each of the sessions for individual review with their supervisor and group review with their fellow students. The client was not informed that their counselor was a student in training or of the purpose of the audiotaping. The supervisor and supervisee have violated which of the following? 

a.client informed consent 

b.client confidentiality 

c.supervisee confidentiality 

d.both a and b are correct 

22.A student is completing an internship at a work re-entry center. The student is female and worked with a male client whom she knew was attracted to her. During his rehabilitation he frequently brought her flowers, candy and cards of thanks. The student did not accept the gifts, rather placed them in a central location for all to benefit from. The student discussed this situation with her supervisor and followed agency policy and her supervisor’s directives during the entire time she was providing services to the client. Upon discharge the client asked the student for her phone number for the purposes of a social/romantic relationship. The stu- 

dent gave the client her phone number and began dating the client two weeks after he was discharged. Another agency personnel saw the two in the community in a close embrace and reported this to the student’s supervisor. Upon hearing this information, the supervisor went to the student’s office, packed her belongi ngs and left them at the front desk with a note that her internship was terminated. The action of the supervisor violated the supervisee’s: 

a.due process 

b.confidentiality 

c.informed consent 

d.professional identity 

e.none of the above 

23.Which of the following are effective suggestions for supervisors to consider to avoid malpractice lawsu its? 

a.possess appropriate knowledge, skill and work habits 

b.foster healthy, respectful relationships 

c.have keen knowledge of self 

d.alloftheabove 

24.After a hearing, a license board makes a decision which could include consequences. Which of the following is NOT a consequence as listed in your text? 

a.revocation of a license 

b.paying a fine 

c.probation 

d.reprimand 

e.none of the above

 

25.Which of the following sources of ethical information has been given the highest rating by certified counselors? 

a.ACA ethical code 

b.APA Ethics Committee 

c.ACA Journal of Counseling and Development 

d.all of the above 

e.a and conly