PLEASE ONLY RESPOND IF YOU CAN HAVE IT COMPLETED BY 8:59PM TONIGHT EASTERN/NEW YORK TIME
I need a response to the three different discussion postings. The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question.
The 1st response is to the questions asked by the instructor.
The second and 3rd discussion: Read the literature and post a response to the literature.
The 1st response is to my previously submitted assignment below. Instructor inquired:
From the instructor:
Excellent job distinguishing between anxiety, stress, and stressor. We are all prone to stressors on a daily basis; however, some of us seem to handle our stressors better than others. For some, this seems to be related to innate lower levels of anxiety in that stressors don’t seem to “get to them” like it does to those who have higher levels of anxiety who may not have developed positive ways of managing stress. What are some positive stress managements techniques that you would recommend?
My assignment I submitted
An aspect of life calls for search and trial. Anxiety disorder being among the unique aspect affecting human life has many hypotheses that try to explain about its nature and origin. This description is going to present some of the theories, that scientist put forth while trying to account for this unique issue affecting human life. This theory is attached to the learning of behavior and the unlearned. Learning, in this case, is used to imply experience. According to psychology, whatever change in behavior means has learned something new. The learning can be further be categorized into two: classical conditioning and operant conditioning.
Classical conditioning is the first character learned in the lab where the involved organism is subjected to some conditions that make to learn by conditional reflection action. Here the involved organism is subjected to a routine bodily function that makes it link some different event with some regular action. In the human being, if one is submitted to some given conditions for a long time, the person end up learning and adopting the state. Such learned behavior is known as conditional stimuli CS.
According to classical conditioning, behaviors are learned via associations. Organisms get to adopt some behavior by associating it with some other different thing (Rothschild, & Gaidis, 1981). For an example a person who smokes once he hears a bell will always get triggered to smoke once he hears the bell ring. Some of the learned behavior includes:
Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, typically about something with an uncertain outcome.
Stress: Defined as a state of mental and emotional strain resulting from adverse circumstances.
Stressor: Refers to a condition which may come from the environment or biological stimuli that cause stress to organisms.
Stress has an impact on both physical and mental health of any organism. It may result in mental breakdown or result into the medical complication of the physical body. Stressed tend to experience pain in the body more especially the head. Stressed people lose appetite and may even lead to death.
Rothschild, M. L., & Gaidis, W. C. (1981). Behavioral learning theory: Its relevance to marketing and promotions. The Journal of Marketing, 70-78.
2nd discussion The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question.
There are numerous theories that attempt to explain the development and manifestation of psychological disorders. Some researchers hold that certain disorders result from learned behaviors (behavioral theory), while other researchers believe that there is a genetic or biological basis to psychological disorders (medical model), while still others hold that psychological disorders stem from unresolved unconscious conflict (psychoanalytic theory).
How would each of these theoretical viewpoints explain anxiety disorders?
Anxiety disorders are classified as panic attacks, different types of phobias, and social. This type of disorder surrounds the autonomic nervous system area and heightens specific things that a person feels at certain times. Anything can trigger an anxiety attack. It also has a genetic disposition. Anxiety disorder can also be triggered from a trauma which is what happened to my husband when he found out his father had cancer. There are also classifications of anxiety and they include generalized anxiety, phobias, Panic attacks, and PTSD. Most people who suffer from anxiety have relatives that also suffer from this disorder.
Does one explain the development and manifestation of anxiety disorders better than the others?
Each area explained for anxiety has a basic foundation in that it has a genetic factor and is in five different categories for this disorder. There is no deviation expressed that I find differently.
Argosy University. Classroom. (2016). Module 5: Module 5- Anxiety Disorders, Retrieved from; http://myeclassonline.com/re/DotNextLaunch.asp?courseid=12737220&userid
Pinel, John P. Biopsychology, 9th Edition. Pearson Learning Solution, 2013-10-01. VitalSourceBookshelfOnline.
3rd discussion The response should be one or two lines and you can ask a question.
The development and manifestation of anxiety disorders are best explained by a Medical Model. A Behavioral Theory explains more than the Psychoanalytic Theory does based on the evidence and research done thus far. The medical model and behavioral theory are most widely accepted views on anxiety disorders. The medical model as a theoretical viewpoint explains anxiety disorders as “a common psychological correlate of stress” (Pinal, 2014). Why the medical model explains best is because it is proven that the heritability estimate is 30-40%, proving the genetic component prominence of anxiety disorder (Pinal, 2014). Science is proven by fact and is biologically based with corresponding research which makes the medical model the most ‘logical’ or substantial viewpoint. The biological basis lies in genetic predisposition where there is an abnormal heightened response of the autonomic nervous system (AU, 2016). Anxiety disorders are identified by underactive and over excitability of functions within the brain including the amygdala, GABA, and the anterior cingulate cortex (AU, 2016).
The psychoanalytic theoretical viewpoint explains anxiety disorders as sprouting from unconscious conflicts that have yet to be resolved; the most recent large research discovery backs up Freud’s psychoanalysis theory altering the continuous controversy. The psychoanalytic theory remained that of a theory since unconscious analysis is difficult to empirically test. The psychoanalytic theory is that of anxiety disorder phobias are experienced in result of an unconscious conflict (Shevrin, 2012).The recent study interviewed patients with anxiety disorders, specifically those with phobias, where the patient described their experience with anxiety disorder symptoms (Shevrin, 2012). From this interview, words were selected to relate to their description and then used as verbal stimuli where the words were subliminally presented as a “conflict” word (Shevrin, 2012). The study took a psychoanalytic standpoint suggesting that repression could by involved with anxiety disorders and that “unconscious conflicts cause or contribute to the anxiety symptoms the patient is experiencing” (Shevrin, 2012). The study revealed “only when the unconscious conflict words were presented unconsciously could the brain see them as connected” showing results only by subliminal stimuli (Shevrin, 2012).
The behavioral theoretical viewpoint sees anxiety disorders developed in results of learned behaviors. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, a type of Anxiety Disorder, is one that can be explained outside of genetic predisposition. OCD behaviors are apparent and are equally experienced when watching. OCD behaviors are easily mimicked and largely enhanced by the focus on these behaviors. These repetitious thoughts when resulting in behaviors could easily be in results of learned behaviors. The behavioral theory is significantly apparent in relation to OCD specifically in parents who act on OCD behaviors and children watching these OCD behaviors. In the case of OCD, the obsessive and compulsive behaviors can be learned even in the form of simple habits. Learning by example is probably one of the largest contributing factors from parent to child which emphasizes the behavioral theory. Much like learning by example, OCD is taught by example of compulsive and obsessive behavioral habits. Anxiety symptoms could also results from learned coping skills presented in the parents. There are a high number of anxiety disorder symptoms that can easily present themselves as simple tasks or logical habits.
Argosy University. (2016). Module 2. [Argosy University Classroom]. Retrieved from
Pinal, J. (2014). BioPsychology. Pearson Education. University of British Columbia. 9th Edition.
Shevrin, H. (2012). Freud’s theory of unconscious conflict linked to anxiety symptoms in new U-M brain research. U-M Medical
School Department of Psychiatry. Retrieved from http://www.uofmhealth.org/news/unconscious-anxiety