The practice of health care providers at all levels brings you into contact with people from a variety of faiths. This calls for knowledge and understanding of a diversity of faith expressions; for the purpose of this course, the focus will be on the Christian worldview.
Based on “Case Study: End of Life Decisions,” the Christian worldview, and the worldview questions presented in the required topic study materials you will complete an ethical analysis of George’s situation and his decision from the perspective of the Christian worldview.
Provide a 1,500-2,000-word ethical analysis while answering the following questions:
- How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the fallenness of the world?
- How would George interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the hope of resurrection?
- As George contemplates life with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), how would the Christian worldview inform his view about the value of his life as a person?
- What sorts of values and considerations would the Christian worldview focus on in deliberating about whether or not George should opt for euthanasia?
- Given the above, what options would be morally justified in the Christian worldview for George and why?
- Based on your worldview, what decision would you make if you were in George’s situation?
Remember to support your responses with the topic study materials.
Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. An abstract is required.
This assignment uses a rubric.You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.
1. Bioethics: A Primer for Christians
Read Chapters 6 and 12 in Bioethics: A Primer for Christians.
2. Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing
Read Chapters 10-12 in Called to Care: A Christian Worldview for Nursing.
3. Defining Death: Medical, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Determination of Death
Read the Introduction and Chapters 1-3 of “Defining Death: Medical, Legal and Ethical Issues in the Determination of Death” by the President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research (1984).
- Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials. 12%
- Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials. 12%
- Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.12%
- Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials. 12%
- Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials. 12%
- Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be make if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear, relevant, and insightful. 10%
- Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear. 7%
- Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative. 8%
- Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. 5%
- All format elements are correct.5%
- Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error. 5%
Running Head: Death and Dying 1
Case Study: Death and Dying 6
Case Study on Death and Dying
Ethical Analysis of Death and Dying – A Case Study
Man is more himself, man is progressively human, when satisfaction is the crucial thing in him, and despondency the shallow. Despairing ought to be a guiltless interval, a delicate and criminal outlook; acclaim ought to be the lasting throb of the spirit. Negativity is, best case scenario an enthusiastic half-occasion; bliss is the uproarious work by which all things live (Cobham, 1940). Regardless of whether you have faith in this vision of the triumph of bliss and the fixing of anguish, you need to let it be known is an excellent idea. (Cobham, 1940). Comment by Victoria Pederson: Please be sure to follow the APA template with indenting all new paragraphs throughout, and including a title centered on top of page two. Comment by Victoria Pederson: This seems like it might be a good effort towards an introduction, but don’t forget to include the thesis. Please see the brief videos in the Writing Process for help with this.
Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the fallenness of the world
We may not know each explanation for the occasions of life, however, importance and expectation can emerge out of considering what people do think about God and this world. In various routes (through creation, still, small voice, Scripture, and through Christ Himself), God has demonstrated His animals that He exists. Further, God has uncovered much about this world and His arrangements for it. God says that the first creation was immaculate, yet sin and fallenness were presented through human insubordination Would it be a good idea for George to naturally presume that delinquents were getting their “retribution?” Or like George snapshot of uncertainty while in jail, would it be a good idea for us to infer that perhaps God isn’t as bona fide or devoted as we had a first idea (Barry, 2001). Comment by Victoria Pederson: Good response to question one. Rather than have a collection of quotations, it would be better to use quotes as evidence to support your own thoughts. Where are your own words, thoughts, opinions, explanations, discussions? Please be sure to check out the Student Success center for help with how to write an academic paper. This needs a lot of improvement.
Christian narrative, with an emphasis on the hope of resurrection
In the case of confronting a human-started catastrophe, for example, a fear-based oppressor assault, or in the midst of a cataclysmic event like the seismic tremors that hit Haiti, Chili, and now Japan? we perpetually ask ourselves, “Why?” during the time spent continuing such catastrophes, individuals may ponder, “Where is God? Might George be able to have kept this? As restricted, limited people, nobody can completely realize why a given occasion may have occurred, or why George apparently blameless people endure. However, we long for a response to the tricky issue of why. Individuals in Jesus’ time needed to know why a specific man was brought into the world visually impaired and why lives were lost through a noticeable fiasco of that time. (Carden, 2007).
Resurrection is in this way one point on the range of Jewish convictions about eternal life. In the event that Christianity had been essentially a group of various Jews who had pursued Jesus or affirmed his instructing, we may have anticipated a comparative spread of perspectives, and the way that we don’t is a noteworthy piece of our inquiry concerning Christian roots; yet that is to keep running in front of my story. The second point for George to note about Jewish confidence in revival is that, where it occurred, it was never an isolates conviction. It was in every case some portion of a bigger picture noticed by George of what God would improve the situation the country and without a doubt the world (DE MEY, 1998). Comment by Victoria Pederson: These are good quotations of information, but how do they relate to the questions asked in Q2. It needs to be connected in some way.
Christian worldview informs his view about the value of George life as a person
On the off chance that Jesus would have passed on and stayed dead, he would resemble the millions who went before him and the millions who came after him. In any case, that isn’t what occurred to George. Christ’s Resurrection demonstrates that he is somebody of an interesting status: The Son of God. the Resurrection isn’t just a key piece of the gospel, yet the paste holds all aspects of the gospel together can’t overlook that humanity– not God– is to be faulted for common abhorrence. It was our corruption that made God revile the earth. (Cobham, 1940).
This is the place Isaiah 26 and Ezekiel 37 make their mark. In spite of the fact that as of now by the main century, maybe as of now in Daniel, some were understanding them as predictions of a strict revival, their setting demands that God means to reestablish Israel as a response isn’t a detached trust in the person, as so regularly in the cutting edge west. It is a piece of the expectation for the country of George as well. Also, somewhat often, it is a piece of the expectation that God will put the entire world to rights, bringing judgment upon the amazing and haughty, and kindness to poor people and discouraged. What’s more, when revival occurred, it would along these lines happen to every one of God’s kin at a similar minute (KASTENBAUM, 2004). Comment by Victoria Pederson: When taking quotes from sources, please be sure that it is not just copy/pasting information. It should deal directly with what you are trying to answer. What place? This is confusing.
Revival is one point on a bigger range; it will happen at the same time as a major aspect of God’s future for Israel and the world; and, third, it was genuinely unspecific in detail to George and almost everyone. The rabbis banter whether God will begin with the spirit and step by step develop to the strong body, or whether, as in Ezekiel, God will start with the bones and include fragile living creature and ligaments, at long last including breath as in Genesis 2. Comment by Victoria Pederson: Again, this doesn’t really answer the questions about the image of God from lecture 2. Please try to use the course materials to show evidence of learning, and ensure the learning of correct information.
Christian worldview And George opting for euthanasia
Without it, Christians are having confidence futile and are without expectation. In any case, since Christ has raised, we have any desire for having our transgressions excused, being made directly in God’s sight, and having unceasing life through Christ. For George situation, obviously, what you end up with is the thing that we would call a physical body; however, there was no understanding about whether this body would be actually similar to the one you had previously, or essentially unique somehow or another. The Maccabean saints insult their torturers with the guarantee that God will give them back their hands, tongues, etc., which are by and by being ravaged. This is reliable with, and most likely demonstrates, a conviction that revival implies an arrival to a type of life fundamentally the same as the present one. Be that as it may, there is no unanimity on this; different writings, for example, Daniel 12, can be deciphered as far as an astral Resurrection, sparkling like stars. The conviction stays ambiguous and unfocused (Merino, 2012). Comment by Victoria Pederson: Please try to minimize your quotes and keep them focused and on-track. What does astral projection have to do with euthanasia? This seems very disconnected to the questions being asked. Please try to be more specific to the questions and responses.
At last, some in any event of the individuals who trusted in the revival likewise put stock in the happening to the Messiah, however the connection among Messiah and Resurrection isn’t generally clear. The act of social insurance in George case, suppliers at all dimensions carries you into contact with individuals from an assortment of beliefs. This calls for information and acknowledgment of an assorted variety of confidence articulations (Spurgeon, n.d.). The reason for my work is to finish a near moral examination of George’s circumstance and choice from the point of view of two perspectives or religions: Christianity and some other second religion.
Justification of George View
For the second confidence, I need to pick confidence that is new to me. Instances of religions to look over incorporate Sikh, Baha’i, Buddhism, Shintoism, and so forth. In the relative investigation, I have to address the majority of the perspective inquiries in detail for Christianity and the second chosen confidence (Srinivasan, 2018).
Diverse religions endeavor to clarify why individuals turn out to be sick and why enduring exists. Likewise, the religions have created perspectives about how individuals ought to react to torment. One of the issues tended to by various religions is the means by which patients experiencing terminal sicknesses ought to react to the issue. The issue about regardless of whether killing ought to be done on such patients has been a noteworthy subject of discussion by various religions (Miller, 2012). The perspectives of various religions towards maladies, enduring and willful extermination fluctuate, yet at times, they are comparable. This way George displays a correlation of the religious perspectives of Christianity and Hinduism towards illness, enduring and killing. The perspectives of the two religions are connected in the moral examination of the instance of George, a man who is creating a terminal disease that will result into a great deal of misery and passing (“The re-enchantment of death: Near-death, death awareness, and the new age.”, 2003).
My own Perspective
Inside the scriptural perspective, at that point, enduring is certainly not a perpetual or inherently essential apparatus of the real world, as in a few renderings of the Eastern thought of Yin and Yang. Or maybe, all torment and enduring is the aftereffect of fallenness. It is an outcome of the scriptural thought of transgression—which one Christian (“Why is the resurrection of Jesus Christ important?”, 2019).
Be that as it may, what do we do with this? What’s the reasonable result when we are effectively enduring in the at this very moment?
Enduring can deliver altogether different outcomes in various people groups’ lives, contingent upon how they react to it. The equivalent excruciating knowledge can make one individual unpleasant, slender, and ungenerous, and someone else better, humbler, and progressively quiet.
In view of this present, it’s a ponder that more places aren’t extremely harmed by climate, or that more lives aren’t lost. Instead of pointing the finger at God, it’s presumably increasingly appropriate to adulate, undeniable the information, and ask, “How is it that mankind is so secured and protected, given oneself dispensed risks presented to people by this world?”(Carden, 2007).
Please insert conclusion here to summarize your main points.
Barry, K. (2001). The dead. Cork: Cork University Press. Comment by Victoria Pederson: Please italicize all book titles as per the APA style guide.
Carden, M. (2007). Review of J. Cheryl Exum’s The Bible in Film? The Bible and Film. The Bible and Critical Theory, 3(1), 14.1-14.3. doi: 10.2104/bc070014 Comment by Victoria Pederson: Please italicize all journal titles and volume numbers as per the APA style guide.
Cobham, J. (1940). Book Review: The Resurrection of the Bible. Theology, 41(244), 252-253. doi: 10.1177/0040571×4004124419
DE MEY, P. (1998). Historical Criticism and the Ressurection of Jesus. Louvain Studies, 23(3), 246-273. doi: 10.2143/ls.23.3.542263 Comment by Victoria Pederson: Authors names do not need to be in all caps, please review the APA style guide.
KASTENBAUM, R. (2004). DEATH WRIT LARGE. Death Studies, 28(4), 375-392. doi: 10.1080/07481180490432360s
Merino, N. (2012). Religion. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.
Spurgeon, C. The Ressurection of the Dead. [S.l.].
Srinivasan, E. (2018). Bereavement experiences following a death under Oregon’s Death with Dignity Act. Death Studies, 1-9. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2018.1511636
The reenchantment of death: Near-death, death awareness, and the new age. (2003). Journal Of Near-Death Studies, 22(2). doi: 10.17514/jnds-2003-22-2-p117-131.
Why is the resurrection of Jesus Christ important? (2019). Retrieved from https://www.gotquestions.org/resurrection-Christ-important.html
There seems to be two sources missing from this list: Miller 2012 and Spurgeon (ND). Please be sure that all sources are cited where used in-text and also in reference. Both are needed as per the APA style guide. I would have liked to see more use of the course materials to show both evidence of learning and ensure the learning of correct information.
Death, Dying, and Grief
Death and dying are a bitter part of the reality of life, in general, and a particularly common experience for those called to health care. The nature and meaning of death is not simply biological or scientific, but rather involves deep philosophical and religious questions. Once again, medical technology has changed the scope, quality, and experience of death (or at least the dying process). It has even prompted a changing of the very definition of death.
Death in the 21st Century
One of the incredible benefits of modern science and its application in medical technology has been the ability to extend physiological life. In the 1960s, the development of CPR, ventilators, and the like allowed never-before-seen intervention in the process of dying, such that a “millennia-old general understanding of what it meant to be dead” was transformed (Veatch, Haddad, & English, 2010, pp. 390-391). In the field of biomedical ethics, the very definition of what it means to be dead is a controversial topic. In continuing with a fundamental theme running throughout this course, it should be noted that while the pathophysiological and scientifically detectable signs of death are crucial in this debate, they should not be taken to be determinative or comprehensive. This debate still crucially depends on the philosophical background of one’s anthropology (i.e., view of personhood) and in the resulting interpretation of these scientific and physiological signs. The medical definition of death is not a purely or irreducibly scientific question.
Worldview and the Meaning of Death
Two of the more controversial issues in bioethics are euthanasia and physician- assisted suicide. As you read and research the ethics surrounding these issues, consider how the Christian worldview would analyze the ethics of such actions. On a worldview level, the question of the medical definition of death is just the tip of the iceberg in terms of the broader significance and ultimate meaning of death. Whether or not there is any meaning to death and what it might be is a question of one’s worldview. Questions regarding whether or not there will be ultimate moral accountability for the way one lived life and whether there is an afterlife are key questions in this regard. The very phenomenon of the loss of (at the very least) physiological and perhaps conscious integrity and activity is a fact of life that calls for explanation.
Once again, an accurate understanding of religion and worldview is required. Furthermore, the distinctions among each religion must be appreciated and not collapsed into one another. The way in which both technology and religious background color the experience and meaning of death (both in dying and grieving) must also be appreciated. Whatever rituals or practices a religious or cultural group engages in are informed by a view regarding the nature and meaning of death that fits within an overarching worldview narrative.
Death in the Christian Worldview
Death takes on a particular meaning when seen within the Christian narrative. It is, in fact, not the greatest evil that could befall a human being and is furthermore transformed in the light of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The Christian teaching that “God died” essentially transforms the way in which death is seen and experienced (Sanders, 2007, pp. 6-8). Death is certainly a tragedy and an evil, but it is now a conquered enemy. It is a conquered enemy because in the Christian biblical narrative, death is a perversion of God’s original design plan. And yet, the Christian God constantly redeems that which is broken.
Loss and Grief
Death is a particularly traumatic and difficult experience for both family and caregivers. Understanding the process and stages of grieving is immensely beneficial for caregivers to assess the well-being of patients and families. There are numerous resources that can be of tremendous benefit for both caregivers and family. One of the most influential is the work of American psychiatrist Elizabeth Kubler-Ross. Perhaps the most influential insight of her work was to notice certain patterns or stages in the human experience of grief, especially after the loss of a loved one in death. She called these the five stages of grief. Briefly, they include the following: (a) denial, (b) anger, (c) bargaining, (d) depression, and (e) acceptance (as cited in HealGrief, 2016).
Expectations regarding an afterlife will in large part determine the manner in which patients and families welcome or spurn the prospect of death. Furthermore, the way in which a person experiences the stages of grief will be in the context of his or her worldview. Christian theologian Nicholas Wolterstorff’s (1987) memoir, Lament for a Son, is a personal reflection of his own personal grief after losing his 25-year-old son in a mountain climbing accident. As he engages with his own grief and experience, it becomes clear that everything is ultimately seen in the light of God’s loving control and the ultimate hope found in the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ.
Why Did God Become Man? Incarnation, Atonement, andResurrection
Jesus was the Son of God before he was born into our world. The event of God taking on flesh and dwelling among us–the incarnation–is amazing and is celebrated all over the world at Christmas. The incarnation is proclaimed clearly throughout the New Testament (Luke 1:35; John 1:14; Phil. 2:5-7).
So why did God become man? The most famous verse in the Bible clearly tells us, “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life” (John 3:16 NIV). And Jesus knew what this would require of him. He stated in Matthew 20:28, “The Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.”
God is both holy and just, so although he created humanity to be immortal, he could not accept them into his holy kingdom in their sinful state. So from the beginning God enacted and unfolded his plan for humanity, to redeem a people for himself (Titus 2:11-14), requiring that justice be upheld and sin punished. Therefore, a sacrificial lamb was needed–one that could atone for the sins of the world. Only the perfect and sinless Lamb of God would be sufficient. Yes, God himself would have to be the sacrifice somehow.
So the incarnation led inexorably to the cross, the torturous experience that had been prophesied nearly a thousand years earlier by David in Psalm 22. All four Gospels give vivid accounts of the crucifixion of Jesus, the most unjust execution ever to be carried out, as testified by the centurion there who said, “Certainly this man was innocent!” (Luke 23:47). But as unjust as the crucifixion was, Jesus willingly accepted it, for as the Son of God he could easily have been rescued (Matt. 26:53). Instead, Jesus bore the sins of the world on the cross. This is called the atonement–the reconciliation of humanity with God through the sufferings and sacrificial death of Christ.
It is interesting that the clearest account of the atonement is found in the prophecy of Isaiah 53: 5-12 (NKJV) where the atonement is specifically stated seven times:
He was wounded for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities…and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all…stricken for the transgression of my people…when his soul makes an offering for sin…and he shall bear their iniquities…yet he bore the sin of many.
God went out of his way to make the extent he would go to bring about reconciliation clear.
The resurrection of Jesus Christ is by far the climax of his life. .All four Gospels provide vivid accounts of this amazing miracle that conquered death. There have been many who looked at the history of the times, read the many accounts of what happened both in the Bible and in other sources, and came to the inevitable conclusion that there is no other explanation for what happened except that Jesus surely rose from the dead. After the crucifixion, the disciples gave up and went back to fishing–the 3 years of exhilarating ministry were over. But then the resurrection changed everything. It was not long before the disciples were accused of turning “the world upside down” (Acts 17:6). This world-changing event was not just a historical miracle, it was a sign of the promise that God gave to those who put their faith in him. Death is a conquered enemy because Jesus’s resurrection from the dead made a way of salvation, and also was a sign of the future that God has for those that have died “in Christ.”
The phrase “in Christ” is very common in the New Testament and crucial to understanding the gospel. To be “in Christ” means to place your “hope in Christ” (Eph. 1:12), or in other words, making Christ the object of your faith. Paul expresses the gospel message most succinctly in Galatians 2:16 where he says, “a person is not justified by works of the law, but through faith in Jesus Christ.”
Christianity is unlike virtually every other religion in the world. Other religions show you what they believe is a way to God by living in a certain manner, praying certain prayers, and many other religious customs. Christianity teaches that people are not capable of being good enough, which is precisely why God sent Jesus to be the Savior of the world. Other religions offer good advice, whereas Christ offers good news, the gospel–which is that by trusting in what he has already done for you, you are restored.
Other religions offer possible salvation (eternal life in heaven) through trusting in one’s own good works, while Christianity offers certain salvation through trusting in Christ’s good works. Paul makes this clear in Ephesians 2:8-9, “For by grace you have been saved through faith. And this is not your own doing; it is the gift of God, not a result of works, so that no one may boast” (ESV). The final chapter in the biblical narrative will involve a restoration of all creation, and those that died in Christ will be resurrected and receive imperishable bodies.
HealGrief. (2016). Understanding grief and loss: An overview. Retrieved from http:// http://healgrief.org/understanding-grief/
Sanders, F. (2007). Chalcedonian categories for the gospel narrative. In F. Sanders & K. Issler (Eds.), Jesus in trinitarian perspective (pp. 1-41). Nashville, TN: B&H Academic.
Veatch, R. M., Haddad, A., & English, D. (2010). Case studies in biomedical ethics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Verhey, A. (2011). The Christian art of dying: Learning from Jesus. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
Wolterstorff, N. (1987). Lament for a son. Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.
George is a successful attorney in his mid-fifties. He is also a legal scholar, holding a teaching post at the local university law school in Oregon. George is also actively involved in his teenage son’s basketball league, coaching regularly for their team. Recently, George has experienced muscle weakness and unresponsive muscle coordination. He was forced to seek medical attention after he fell and injured his hip. After an examination at the local hospital following his fall, the attending physician suspected that George may be showing early symptoms for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a degenerative disease affecting the nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The week following the initial examination, further testing revealed a positive diagnosis of ALS.
ALS is progressive and gradually causes motor neuron deterioration and muscle atrophy to the point of complete muscle control loss. There is currently no cure for ALS, and the median life expectancy is between 3 and 4 years, though it is not uncommon for some to live 10 or more years. The progressive muscle atrophy and deterioration of motor neurons leads to the loss of the ability to speak, move, eat, and breathe. However, sight, touch, hearing, taste, and smell are not affected. Patients will be wheelchair bound and eventually need permanent ventilator support to assist with breathing.
George and his family are devastated by the diagnosis. George knows that treatment options only attempt to slow down the degeneration, but the symptoms will eventually come. He will eventually be wheelchair bound and be unable to move, eat, speak, or even breathe on his own.
In contemplating his future life with ALS, George begins to dread the prospect of losing his mobility and even speech. He imagines his life in complete dependence upon others for basic everyday functions and perceives the possibility of eventually degenerating to the point at which he is a prisoner in his own body. Would he be willing to undergo such torture, such loss of his own dignity and power? George thus begins inquiring about the possibility of voluntary euthanasia.