Module 2 – case cell chemistry case assignment

Case Assignment

Now that you have learned the basics of energy conversion, enzymatic activity, and two important processes used by living organisms, you will focus on cellular respiration for this Case Assignment.

After viewing the videos on Cellular Respiration, answer the following questions in a 2- to 3-page paper:

1.    What is the starting molecule in glycolysis (i.e., what is being metabolized. Be specific)?

2.    Define these terms: substrate, enzyme, ATP, and describe why they are important in cellular respiration.

3.    What do these enzymes do, generally speaking? Would the reaction occur if they were not present? Why or why not?

4.    What are the byproducts of cellular respiration? Where do these byproducts end up (in the organism AND in the environment)?

Assignment Expectations

The Case Assignment is a written description of a problem or situation. Most cases are a “snapshot” of a particular situation within a complex environment.

The purpose of the Case Assignments in this course is to place the student in a position that will require research, synthesis of information, and critical thought. The student will be asked to distinguish pertinent facts from peripheral facts, identify central alternatives among several issues competing for attention, and formulate strategies and recommendations. This method provides an opportunity to sharpen problem-solving skills and to improve the ability to think and reason rigorously.

Your essay is considered a scholarly work. You will be provided with many scholarly references to begin each assignment. For any additional research you are required to do to complete your assignment, please use scholarly references such as a peer reviewed journal article or a government sponsored or university sponsored website. As you read through your sources, take notes from your sources and then write your paper in your own words, describing what you have learned from your research. Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.

 

 

Case 2 chronic stress and behavioral response

Note: If you have trouble viewing some of the course materials, install Quicktime and the Adobe Shockwave Player, both of which can be downloaded free from the Internet.

STOP!!! BEFORE YOU PROCEED, BE YOU MUST HAVE READ THE HOME PAGE AND VIEWED ALL LINKS AND TUTORIALS!!! You will need this information to complete this Case Assignment.

Assignment Overview

Cortisol is an important hormone that is released in the stress response. In this module assignment, we will look at this hormone more closely to investigate:

  1. the molecular composition of cortisol
  2. the signaling pathway that elicits the production and release of cortisol
  3. the cellular-, organ-, and organ system-level response that results from this cell signal

Case Assignment

Read the following articles:

The Physiology of Stress: Cortisol and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. Randall, M. 2011. Dartmouth Undergraduate Journal of Science.

and

The Relationship between Traumatic Stress, PTSD and Cortisol. Delaney, E. Naval Center for Combat & Operational Stress Control.

After reading these articles, develop a 10–15 slide presentation in the following format.

Slides 1 and 2: The cascade of hormonal signals described by the section titled “Neurochemistry of Stress” of the Randall (2011) article. Use simple ovals or circles to depict the regions that release specific hormones in the hormone cascade that results in the release of cortisol. Label the hormones and regions and organs involved using textboxes (both options appear in the “Insert” tab of the PowerPoint program).

Slides 3 and 4: Label and diagram the kidney and adrenal gland. Include the following:

  • Adrenal gland: cortex and medulla; regions associated with hormone production and release; hormones released in each region
  • Kidney: cortex and medulla; region of water absorption and filtering; region of urine collection

Slide 5: Diagram and label the HPA axis. Include the hormones released by each component and their effect on the target organ(s).

Slide 6: Using your diagram from Slide 5, include the location of the hippocampus and the negative feedback loop that occurs when the hippocampus detects high cortisol levels. In the notes section, include a brief description of the effects associated with elevated cortisol exposure to the hippocampus.

Slide 7: Using bulleted points, list factors that exacerbate the stress response through activation of the HPA axis.

Slide 8–10: Do some additional research on PTSD. Diagram the regions of the brain believed to be involved with symptoms of PTSD. Explain the relationship between PTSD and depression and include relevant regions of the brain in your labeled regions.

Slides 11–13: In bulleted points, summarize the varied findings in the studies described in the article, “The Relationship between Traumatic Stress, PTSD and Cortisol.” Include the relationships found between cortisol levels and individuals with PTSD. In the notes include some explanations from the article for the variability in cortisol levels in these individuals. Explain the limitations of these studies mentioned by the author at the end of the article.

Slides 14 and 15: references cited, additional notes if necessary

Assignment Expectations

For this Case Assignment you will develop a PowerPoint presentation that is approximately 15 slides in length and addresses the requirements outlined above. Place the text containing the answers to the questions above in the Notes section of your slide presentation. Reference all of your answers in your Notes sections with citations, such as (Murray 2014). Your slides should contain labeled images that illustrate the text that you included in your Notes sections. Do a Google search that includes the term “image” to find diagrams of the required organs and systems (e.g., search for “adrenal gland image”). Provide the website or reference used for each labeled image. Be sure your last slide is a references slide that contains the full references cited on your slides. Many resources are provided for you. Include these in your references section. This assignment should not require much independent research.

Slp 2 chronic stress and behavioral response

Module 2 – SLP

Chronic Stress and Behavioral Response

Note: If you have trouble viewing some of the course materials, install Quicktime and the Adobe Shockwave Player, both of which can be downloaded free from the Internet.

Continue your investigation of the effects of stress on brain function and behavior. Read more about the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex in these articles:

How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain,” in Psychology Today

Stress Effects on Structure and Function of Hippocampus,” by the Rockefeller University

Answer the following questions in paragraph format to write an essay about the findings reported by these articles:

Introduction Paragraph:

First, do some research on how the amygdala, hippocampus, and prefrontal cortex communicate and result in normal behavioral response. You will begin your reading on the amygdala by following this link. After reading this section, click on several other structures in the brain at the end of the page to read about the interactions between these three regions. Briefly describe this pathway and the behavior that results from the interaction of these regions using 2-3 sentences. This will help you to introduce the content that you will address in the sections below.

Body Paragraph 1

Summarize the effects of glucocorticoids on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex reported in the article How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain.

Body Paragraphs 2 and 3

What effect on hippocampal cells have stress hormones had in recent studies described by Stress Effects on Structure and Function of Hippocampus? What effect have they had on the amygdala in studies? What are the implications of these effects? HINT: What are the functions of the regions and how might they be affected by changes in their structure?

Body Paragraph 4

What is neurogenesis and where does it occur in the brain? What effect on the regeneration of hippocampal cells is reported in this article? What is the mechanism?

Conclusion Paragraph 1

Summarize the effects of cortisol on this pathway by describing how PTSD can result from perpetuated cortisol release and how this can result in depression by activating and/or reinforcing depression pathways.

Conclusion Paragraph 2

Describe the methods proposed to counteract the negative effects of chronic stress in How to Prevent Stress from Shrinking Your Brain.

SLP Assignment Expectations

For this assignment, write an essay using the outline above. You are provided with many scholarly references to complete this assignment. Include a References section that lists these and any additional sources you used (refer to the Background page). For any additional research you are required to do to complete your assignment, please use scholarly references such as a peer-reviewed journal article or a government-sponsored or university-sponsored website. As you read through your sources, take notes from your sources and then write your paper in your own words, describing what you have learned from your research. Direct quotes should be limited and must be designated by quotation marks. Paraphrased ideas must give credit to the original author, for example (Murray, 2014). Direct copying from “homework help” websites will not receive credit.

Crepe erase review | Biology homework help

The fact that there are so many skin tightening  

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Free radicals from the sun deplete the natural collagen and Coq10 in your body; hence, they damage the cells and cause the skin to sag and wrinkle. So, the best tummy firming cream should contain a strong antioxidant to fight the free radicals. Co-enzyme Q10 is a good antioxidant to look for; but most of the coq10 used in the industry are not effective because they do not penetrate deep into the skin.Nano-lipobelle HEQ10 is the best form of CoQ10 because it is proven to through the seven layers of skin to counter free radicals and reverse their effects on the skin.

The best tummy firming cream should also increase collagen in your body because collagen is responsible for keeping the skin firm, smooth and elastic. Cynergy TK is an active keratin makes the human body form natural collagen and elastin; hence, it effectively tightens the skin to make it look smooth and radiant. It also helps to get rid of lines and wrinkles to make your skin look younger and flawless.

Now that you know the necessary ingredients that a quality tummy firming cream should contain, it is time to smooth away those folds and make your skin look smooth without surgery. For more information on how to choose safe and effective skincare products, visit my website.People always want to succeed in preventing wrinkles and fine lines. However, most of them find it hard to find ways to effectively protect their skin and actually prevent wrinkles and fine lines from forming. This is the reason why wrinkles and fine lines have always been a major skin dilemma to most people especially to women.

 https://optimusforexreview.com/crepe-erase-review/

Bio statistics quiz | Biology homework help

This quiz consists of 20 questions most appear to be similar but now really. I ned someone who is familiar with bio-statistics and math. The due date is tomorrow 4 pm PST. or (16:00). Please if you accept handshake you must do the work not get from previous papers or tell me you had emergency an hour before its due. This is important to me.

attached is the file just in case you need it in word format. Thank you in advance.

1.      The standard deviation of the diameter at breast height, or DBH, of the slash pine tree is less than one inch. Identify the Type I error. (Points : 1)

      [removed] Fail to support the claim σ < 1 when σ < 1 is true.
      [removed] Support the claim  μ < 1 when μ = 1 is true.
      [removed] Support the claim σ < 1 when σ = 1 is true.
      [removed] Fail to support the claim μ < 1 when μ < 1 is true.

1a.  The EPA claims that fluoride in children’s drinking water should be at a mean level of less than 1.2 ppm, or parts per million, to reduce the number of dental cavities. Identify the Type I error. (Points : 1)

      [removed] Fail to support the claim σ < 1.2 when σ < 1.2 is true.
      [removed] Support the claim μ < 1.2 when μ = 1.2 is true.
      [removed] Support the claim σ < 1.2 when σ = 1.2 is true.
      [removed] Fail to support the claim μ < 1.2 when μ < 1.2 is true.

2.      Biologists are investigating if their efforts to prevent erosion on the bank of a stream have been statistically significant. For this stream, a narrow channel width is a good indicator that erosion is not occurring. Test the claim that the mean width of ten locations within the stream is greater than 3.7 meters. Assume that a simple random sample has been taken, the population standard deviation is not known, and the population is normally distributed. Use the following sample data:

3.3 3.3 3.5 4.9 3.5 4.1 4.1 5 7.3 6.2

What is the P-value associated with your test statistic? Report your answer with three decimals, e.g., .987 (Points : 1)

2a. Medical researchers studying two therapies for treating patients infected with Hepatitis C found the following data. Assume a .05 significance level for testing the claim that the proportions are not equal. Also, assume the two simple random samples are independent and that the conditions np ≥ 5 and nq ≥ 5 are satisfied.

 

 

Therapy 1

Therapy 2

Number of patients

39

47

Eliminated Hepatitis

20

13

C infection

 

 


 
Construct a 95% confidence interval estimate of the odds ratio of the odds for having Hepatitis C after Therapy 1 to the odds for having Hepatitis C after Therapy 2. Give your answer with two decimals, e.g., (12.34,56.78) (Points : 0.5)

      [removed]

3. Researchers studying sleep loss followed the length of sleep, in hours, of 10 individuals with insomnia before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Assume a .05 significance level to test the claim that there is a difference between the length of sleep of individuals before and after CBT. Also, assume the data consist of matched pairs, the samples are simple random samples, and the pairs of values are from a population having a distribution that is approximately normal.

 

Individual

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Before

6

5

4

5

3

4

5

3

4

2

CBT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After

8

8

7

6

7

6

6

5

7

5

CBT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 
Construct a 95% confidence interval estimate of the mean difference between the lengths of sleep. Give your answer with two decimals, e.g., (12.34,56.78) (Points : 0.5)

      [removed]

3a. Scientists, researching large woody debris (LWD), surveyed the number of LWD pieces from aerial photos taken annually for the past 35 years at two different sites. Over the 35 years of photos examined, the first site had a mean number of LWD pieces per hectare per year (LWD/ha/yr) of 3.7 pieces with a standard deviation of 1.9. The second site had a mean number of LWD/ha/yr of 4.3 with a standard deviation of 2.4. Assume a .05 significance level for testing the claim that the mean LWD/ha at the first site had less than the mean LWD/ha/yr at the second site. Also, assume the two samples are independent simple random samples selected from normally distributed populations, but do not assume that the population standard deviations are equal.

Construct a 90% confidence interval for the difference between the two means. Give your answer with two decimals, e.g., (12.34,56.78) (Points : 0.5)

4.      The paired data consist of the cost of regionally advertising (in thousands of dollars) a certain pharmaceutical drug and the number of new prescriptions written (in thousands).

 

Cost

9

2

3

4

2

5

9

10

Number

85

52

55

68

67

86

83

73


 
Find the value of the linear correlation coefficient r. Give your answer to three decimals, e.g., .987. (Points : 0.5)

4a. The paired data consist of the cost of regionally advertising (in thousands of dollars) a certain pharmaceutical drug and the number of new prescriptions written (in thousands).

 

Cost

9

2

3

4

2

5

9

10

Number

85

52

55

68

67

86

83

73


 
Find the predicted value of the number of new prescriptions written if $6000 is spent in regional advertising. Give your answer as an integer. (Points : 0.5)

      [removed]

5.      Use a .05 significance level and the observed frequencies of 70 Neonatal deaths to test the claim that number of neonatal deaths on each day of the week is equally likely.

 

Mon

Tues

Wed

Thurs

Fri

Sat

Sun

10

9

5

8

15

12

11


 
Determine the value of the χ2 test statistic. Give your answer to two decimals, e.g., 12.34 (Points : 0.5)

5a. Use a .05 significance level and the observed frequencies of 144 drowning at the beaches of a randomly selected coastal state to test the claim that the number of drowning for each month is equally likely.

 

Jan

Feb

Mar

Apr

May

June

July

Aug

Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec

1

3

2

7

14

20

37

33

16

6

2

3


 
Determine the value of the χ
2 test statistic. Give your answer to two decimals, e.g., 12.34 . (Points : 0.5)

      [removed]

6.      Using a .01 significance level, test the claim that the proportions of fear/do not fear responses are the same for male and female dental patients.

Gender

 

Male

Female

Fear Dentistry

48

70

Do Not Fear Dentistry

21

32


 
Do you reject the null hypothesis, at the .01 significance level? Enter Y for yes (reject), N for no (fail to reject). (Points : 0.5)

6a. Using a .01 significance level, test the claim that the proportions of fear/do not fear responses are the same for male and female dental patients.

Gender

 

 

Male

Female

Fear Dentistry

48

70

Do Not Fear Dentistry

21

32


 
Determine the value of the χ
2 test statistic. Give your answer to three decimals, e.g., 12.345 . (Points : 0.5)

      [removed]

 

7. The table represents results from an experiment with patients afflicted in both eyes with glaucoma. Each patient was treated in one eye with laser surgery and in the other eye was treated with eye drops. Using a .05 significance level, apply McNemar’s test to test the following claim: The proportion of patients with no improvement on the laser treated eye and an improvement on the drops treated eye is the same as the proportion of patients with an improvement on the laser treated eye and no improvement on the drops treated eye.

 

 

 

 

Improvement

No Improvement

 

 

 

 

Laser Surgery

Improvement

15

10

Treatment

No Improvement

50

25


 
Determine the value of the χ2 test statistic. Give your answer to two decimals, e.g., 12.34 . (Points : 0.5)

7a. The table represents results from an experiment with patients afflicted with eczema on both arms. Each patient was treated with an immune modulator cream on one arm and a topical steroid cream on the other arm. Using a .05 significance level, apply McNemar’s test to test the following claim: The proportion of patients with no cure on the immune modulator treated arm and a cure on the topical steroid treated arm is the same as the proportion of patients with a cure on the immune modulator treated arm and no cure on the topical steroid treated arm.

 

 

 

Immune Modulator Cream

 

 

 

Cure

No Cure

Topical Steroid

Cure

25

11

Cream

No Cure

42

22


 
Do you reject the null hypothesis, at the .05 significance level? Enter Y for yes (reject), N for no (fail to reject). (Points : 0.5)

      [removed]

8.For a study on Type 1 diabetes, medical graduate students subdivided the United States into four study regions (Northeast, Southeast, Southwest, and Northwest). The students randomly selected seven patients per region and recorded the number of times during a randomly selected month that each patient used insulin shots to regulate blood sugar levels. Use One-Way ANOVA at a .05 significance level to test the claim that the means from the different regions are not the same.

 Mean number of times patients used insulin shots to regulate blood sugar levels

 Northeast

Southeast

Southwest

Northwest

4

6

4

4

3

5

5

4

3

6

6

5

4

8

6

6

3

6

7

3

2

6

5

5

5

8

4

3

 

             

 

 

             

 

 

             

 

                       


 Do you reject the null hypothesis, at the .05 significance level? Enter Y for yes (reject), N for no (fail to reject). (Points : 0.5

8a. Geneticists studying carriers of genetic diseases followed subjects subdivided by race. Researchers randomly selected seven patients per race who had been identified as carrying a certain gene for a genetic disease; these patients were followed to determine the number of their siblings who also carried the gene for the genetic disease. Use a One-Way ANOVA at a .05 significance level to test the claim that the means from the different races are not all the same.

 

Caucasian

African-American

Other

2

0

0

3

0

1

3

1

2

3

2

2

4

2

2

5

2

3

5

4

4


 
Determine the value of the F test statistic. Give your answer to two decimals, e.g., 12.34 . (Points : 0.5)

      [removed]

                            

9.      The reason we cannot use multiple t-tests to claim that four populations have the same mean is that we increase the likelihood of a type I error. (Points : 1)

      [removed] True
      [removed] False

9a.

If there is only one observation per cell in a Two-Way ANOVA, and it can be assumed there is not an interaction between factors, then we can proceed to interpret the results of the row and column effects. (Points : 1)

      [removed] True 
      [removed] False 

 

10.Use the following technology display from a Two-Way ANOVA to answer this question. Biologists studying habitat use in Lepidopteran moths measured the number of savannah moths found at three randomly selected prairie sites with two potential habitat interferences (expansion of row crops and grazing). Use a .05 significance level.
 

Source

Df

SS

MS

F

P

Site

2

.1905

.0952

.0381

.9627

Habitat

1

304.0238

304.0238

121.6095

.0000

Site*Habitat

2

.1905

.0952

.0381

.9627


 What is the value of the F test statistic for the site effect? (Points : 0.5)

10a. Use the following technology display from a Two-Way ANOVA to answer this question. Biologists studying habitat use in Lepidopteran moths measured the number of savannah moths found at three randomly selected prairie sites with two potential habitat interferences (expansion of row crops and grazing). Use a .05 significance level.

 

Source

Df

SS

MS

F

P

Site

2

.1905

.0952

.0381

.9627

Habitat

1

304.0238

304.0238

121.6095

.0000

Site*Habitat

2

.1905

.0952

.0381

.9627


 
Do you reject the null hypothesis about the site effect, at the .05 significance level? Enter Y for yes (reject), N for no (fail to reject). (Points : 0.5)

      [removed]