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Association between Apnea of Prematurity and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Late Preterm Infants is a study to see if there is an association of respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) with apnea of prematurity(AOP) of late preterm infants. The research shows there is an association between the two. The study studied the 34-36-week infants who are termed, “late preterm infants.” These infants have respiratory morbidities and require close observation in NICU when presented with RDS and AOP. Special consideration should be to observe closely after treatment is discontinued (Olivier, Nadeau, Caouette, & Piedboeuf, 2016).

A strength of this study was showing the association of the two in late preterm infants. These infants are at risk for respiratory distress syndrome and apnea of prematurity. 

A weakness of this study was that it didn’t show the readmission rate of these infants, especially after diagnosed with apnea or respiratory distress syndrome.  ​​​​​​​


The article Safe Discharge of the late preterm infant addresses that late preterm infants are 34-36 weeks and are premature. They are a risk for mortality and morbidities of prematurity. They are at risk for hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia and thermal regulation problems. The study addresses the problems these infants have post-delivery and some recommendations (Whyte, 2010).

A strength the study has it does address the problems most infants of this gestational age can have and some recommendations.

A weakness the study has it really does not show the readmission rates, disparities or ethnicity of these infants which could show problems in ethnicities or communities of low income or low resources.



“Late-preterm” Infants. A Population at Risk is an article about terming infants from near-term to late preterm because they are at risk for mortalities and morbidities. It addresses possible evaluations and guidelines that facilities should address with late preterm infants and the cost and readmission rates of these infants(Engle, Tomashek, & Wallman, 2007).

A strength that this article has it has recommendations for taking care of these infants to decrease readmission to hospital or mortalities in this gestational age group. These guidelines are very helpful and simple to incorporate in care of these infants. It also showed particular ethnicities are a risk of late preterm admissions. This article made clear that late preterm infants were renamed from near-term infants because they look like term infants but, they have prematurity problems like hypoglycemia, thermoregulation problems, feeding issues and hyperbilirubinemia.

A weakness the article showed was not showing what in particular caused the readmission and never mentioned if these infants had comorbidities as well.

Disparities in Mortality Rates Among US Infants Born Late Preterm or Early Term is a journal article about identifying the disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal and overall infant mortality rates in late preterm and early preterm (37-38 weeks gestation) by race-ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality,(King, Gazmararian, & Shapiro-Mendoza, 2013).

The strength this article had was showing the Native American, Non-Hispanic black, teenage mothers and singleton pregnancy who had late preterm infants had higher mortality rates.

The weakness it showed again was it did not indicate if there were support systems for some and not others. It did not indicate if resources were available or cause of the mortality rate if they lacked resources, education or low income.


Babies born close to the term: Considerations, challenges, and outcomes was an article about late preterm infants the problems they have at birth and the future developmental problems. They also describe the financial burden the infants have on the community and families that take care of them(Boyle, 2017).

A strength the article had was detailing the problems they are born with and future outcomes that will exist.

A weakness is there were no recommendations to help alleviate problems or financial burdens, what resources could be available for these babies further research is needed.


Prenatal steroids lower risk of respiratory illness in late preterm infants is a study comparing late preterm infants versus a placebo group getting antenatal steroids prior to delivery between 34-36 weeks gestation to prevent respiratory distress or decrease the need for secondary interventions (National Institutes of Health, 2016)​​​​​​​.

The strength of the study was that it did show that infants that were late preterm did fair better and had a reduction in severe respiratory illness and less time with secondary interventions like supplemental oxygen and CPAP.

The weakness of the study is that it did not compare race-ethnicity, education, parity or age of the mother. These could be possibly a factor in overall outcomes of these infants as well.







Boyle, E. M. (2017, July 1, 2017). Babies born close to term: Considerations, challenges and outcomes. International Journal of Birth and Parent Education, 4(4), 23-28. Retrieved from

Engle, W. A., Tomashek, K. A., & Wallman, C. (2007, December). “Late-Preterm” Infants: A Population at Risk. Pediatrics, 120, 1390-1401. Retrieved from

King, J. P., Gazmararian, J. A., & Shapiro-Mendoza, C. K. (2013, 2014). Disparities in Mortality Rates Among US Infants Born Late Preterm or Early Term, 2003–2005. Maternal Child Health Journal, 18, 233-241.

Olivier, F., Nadeau, ., Caouette, ., & Piedboeuf, B. (2016, September 26). Association between Apnea of Prematurity and Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Late Preterm Infants: An Observational Study. Frontier Pediatrics.

Prenatal steroids lower risk of respiratory illness in late preterm infants. (2016). Retrieved from

Whyte, R. K. (2010, December). Safe discharge of the late preterm infant. Paediatr Child Health, 15, 655=660. Retrieved from