Educational psychology

PRESCHOOLERS

PRESCHOOLERS 2

Preschoolers, Problem-Solving, Creativity, and Intelligence

Professional Development for Preschool Teachers

Preschoolers, Problem-Solving, Creativity, and Intelligence

Introduction

Problem-Solving and Creativity

Introduction

Problem solving is all about trying to find solutions to problems simple or difficult. Creativity is the use of one’s imagination to come up with ideas. Posamentier (2020) found that problem-solving has been around as long as humans. It can be found that humans have always been fascinated with problem-solving and even entertained with problem solving at one point or another. Goldstein (2019) stated that Gestalt Approach was one of the earlier approaches that were intrigued with problem solving. In Gestalt the psychologists were interested in learning about how the problem and the mind interact as well as how solving the problem and how it can be organized and constructed (Goldstein, 2019). Findings on problem solving found that problem-solving is all about how the problem is represented in the person’s mind (Fischer, Grieff and Funke, 2017). Newell and Simon founded a theory in which problem solving happens in the problem space by which it consists of the initial problem and focusing on the end goal of the problem ( Greiff, Holt and Funke, 2013). Creativity aids in the problem-solving. Having the ability to be creative allows for the person solving the problem to be able to think up some new ways to solve a problem. For example giving two people the same problem, it would be most likely that those people who have different ways to solve that problem based on their own creativity and knowledge.

In the realm of problem-solving comes two types of thinking: divergent thinking and convergent thinking. Convergent thinking is a type of problem solving where it allows the student to think of a concrete solution (Coursey, Gertner, Williams …, 2019). Divergent thinking is where the student thinks of multiple solutions in which leads to creativity (Coursey et al., 2019). Convergent thinking allows for students to apply previous techniques and knowledge while divergent thinkers understand there are existing solutions but have a want to find a new way to solve the problem.

Theories

Brain Physiology and Cognitive Performance

Decision Making and Reasoning

Introduction

Theories

Brain Physiology and Cognitive Performance

Human and Artificial Intelligence

Introduction

Theories

Brain Physiology and Cognitive Performance

Ethics

Conclusion

Coursey, L. E., Gertner, R. T., Williams, B. C., Kenworthy, J. B., Paulus, P. B., & Doboli, S. (2019). Linking the Divergent and Convergent Processes of Collaborative Creativity: The Impact of Expertise Levels and Elaboration Processes. Frontiers in psychology10, 699. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00699

Goldstein, E. B. (2019). Cognitive psychology: Connecting mind, research, and everyday experience (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage. 

Fischer, A., Greiff, S., & Funke, J. (2017). The history of complex problem solving. doi:

10.1787/9789264273955-9-en

Greiff, S., Holt, D. V., & Funke, J. (2013). Perspectives on Problem Solving in Educational Assessment: Analytical, Interactive, and Collaborative Problem Solving. The Journal of Problem Solving5(2). doi: 10.7771/1932-6246.1153

Posamentier, A. S. (2020). The psychology of problem solving: the background to successful mathematics thinking. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd.