Life science quiz | Biology homework help


Question 1

 

What is the main difference between protists and bacteria?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

Bacteria have DNA, protists do not.

 

 

 

  B.

 

Protists have a nucleus, bacteria do not

 

 

 

  C.

 

Bacteria are always gram-negative, protists are gram-positive

 

 

 

  D.

 

Protists are unicellular, bacteria are multicellular.

 

 

 

  E.

 

Protists cannot cause infections, bacteria can

 

 

 

 

 

Question 2

 

Of the following, which kingdom contains the most diversity in terms of DNA sequences?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

Protista

 

 

 

  B.

 

Plantae

 

 

 

  C.

 

All of these are approximately equivalently diverse.

 

 

 

  D.

 

Fungi

 

 

 

  E.

 

Animalia

 

 

 

Question 3

 

During which geological era did Pangea break apart?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

Mesozoic

 

 

 

  B.

 

Archean

 

 

 

  C.

 

Proterozoic

 

 

 

  D.

 

Cenozoic

 

 

 

  E.

 

Paleozoic

 

 

 

 

 

Question 4

 

In bacteria, the cell wall is composed mainly of

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

various polysaccharides.

 

 

 

  B.

 

proteins.

 

 

 

  C.

 

peptidoglycans.

 

 

 

  D.

 

glycoproteins.

 

 

 

  E.

 

lipids.

 

 

 

Question 5

 

Oxygen built up in the atmosphere approximately 2 billion years ago and

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

could not have occurred without the oxygen coming from outer space.

 

 

 

  B.

 

occurred because aerobic organisms required the oxygen.

 

 

 

  C.

 

occurred due to carbon dioxide being split by lightning strikes.

 

 

 

  D.

 

helped to form the ozone layer that is so important to life today.

 

 

 

  E.

 

destroyed ozone forming more oxygen.

 

 

 

Question 6

 

Prions are composed of

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

RNA.

 

 

 

  B.

 

DNA, RNA, and protein.

 

 

 

  C.

 

DNA and protein.

 

 

 

  D.

 

protein.

 

 

 

  E.

 

DNA.

 

 

 

Question 7

 

The endosymbiont hypothesis suggests that the mitochondria of eukaryotic cells are descended from captured

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

eukaryotic algae.

 

 

 

  B.

 

chemoautotrophic bacteria.

 

 

 

  C.

 

aerobic bacteria.

 

 

 

  D.

 

archaebacteria.

 

 

 

  E.

 

cyanobacteria.

 

 

 

Question 8

 

All but one of the following are false regarding protists. Identify the true statement.

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

Protists are prokaryotic.

 

 

 

  B.

 

Most protists are single-celled organisms; some are multicellular.

 

 

 

  C.

 

All protists are single-celled organisms.

 

 

 

  D.

 

Protists do not have the ability to move on their own.

 

 

 

  E.

 

Protists have cell walls composed mainly of peptidoglycans.

 

 

 

Question 9

 

Which form of bacterial cells is rod shaped?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

vibrios

 

 

 

  B.

 

spirilla

 

 

 

  C.

 

bacilli

 

 

 

  D.

 

cocci

 

 

 

  E.

 

rhodius

 

 

 

Question 10

 

Paleontologists have found fossils dating back 3.6 billion years. These closely resemble

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

fungi.

 

 

 

  B.

 

today’s simplest plants.

 

 

 

  C.

 

small invertebrate animals.

 

 

 

  D.

 

blue-green algae present today.

 

 

 

  E.

 

nothing alive today.

 

 

 

Question 11

 

Eukaryotic cells are thought to have

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

appeared about 2.1 billion years ago.

 

 

 

  B.

 

developed when mitochondria grew much larger in size that they had been previously.

 

 

 

  C.

 

evolved before prokaryotic cells.

 

 

 

  D.

 

first appeared as parts of multicellular organisms.

 

 

 

  E.

 

first appeared with tough cell walls.

 

 

 

Question 12

 

What term is used to indicate a characteristic that is shared and inherited from a common ancestor?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

 

 

cladistic trait

 

 

 

  B.

 

 

 

homologous trait

 

 

 

  C.

 

 

 

outgroups

 

 

 

  D.

 

 

 

analogous trait

 

 

 

  E.

 

 

 

derived trait

 

 

 

Question 13

 

Kelps are a form of what group of protists?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

slime molds

 

 

 

  B.

 

brown algae

 

 

 

  C.

 

dinoflagellates

 

 

 

  D.

 

ciliates

 

 

 

  E.

 

water molds

 

 

 

Question 14

 

Endospores form

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

to produce two offspring from every one parental cell.

 

 

 

  B.

 

as a means of genetic recombination.

 

 

 

  C.

 

in response to adverse conditions.

 

 

 

  D.

 

during binary fission.

 

 

 

  E.

 

when the environmental conditions are favorable.

 

 

 

Question 15

 

The Cambrian Explosion provided a wealth of fossil remains for scientists to uncover. Many of the animals from this time period had tough skins or shells. This would

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

protect the animal from osmotic pressure.

 

 

 

  B.

 

protect the animal from predators.

 

 

 

  C.

 

make these animals more desirable to predators.

 

 

 

  D.

 

allow the animals to move into different environments easily.

 

 

 

  E.

 

be a disadvantage for these organisms and lead to their death and fossil formation.

 

 

 

Question 16

 

 Some bacteria can form resting structures called ___________ that can withstand extremes in temperature, moisture, and radiation.

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

symbionts

 

 

 

  B.

 

viroids

 

 

 

  C.

 

endospores

 

 

 

  D.

 

capsids

 

 

 

  E.

 

prions

 

 

 

Question 17

 

Rickettsias belong to which major group of bacteria?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

viruses

 

 

 

  B.

 

cyanobacteria

 

 

 

  C.

 

spirochetes

 

 

 

  D.

 

proteobacteria

 

 

 

  E.

 

Archaea

 

 

 

Question 18

 

When taxonomists classify organisms using a phylogenetic approach, they are most concerned with

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

outgroups.

 

 

 

  B.

 

ancestral traits.

 

 

 

  C.

 

cladists.

 

 

 

  D.

 

ingroups.

 

 

 

  E.

 

derived traits.

 

 

 

Question 19

 

Atmospheric chemists think that Earth’s first atmosphere

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

 

 

consisted of carbon in the form of carbon monoxide.

 

 

 

  B.

 

 

 

contained nitrogen in the form of ammonia and nitrogen gas.

 

 

 

  C.

 

 

 

was very similar to today’s atmosphere.

 

 

 

  D.

 

 

 

contained no oxygen atoms.

 

 

 

  E.

 

 

 

consisted of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide.

 

 

 

Question 20

 

Most bacteria are

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

photoautotrophs.

 

 

 

  B.

 

heterotrophs.

 

 

 

  C.

 

symbionts.

 

 

 

  D.

 

microbial predators.

 

 

 

  E.

 

chemoautotrophs.

 

 

 

Question 21

 

This characteristic allows fungi to withstand heat and drought conditions.

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

mycelia

 

 

 

  B.

 

spores

 

 

 

  C.

 

cell walls

 

 

 

  D.

 

specialized organelles

 

 

 

  E.

 

hyphae

 

 

 

Question 22

 

Lichens are

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

insensitive to changes in the environment.

 

 

 

  B.

 

capable of causing some obscure diseases.

 

 

 

  C.

 

parasitic interactions between a fungus and an alga.

 

 

 

  D.

 

only found growing on living matter.

 

 

 

  E.

 

symbiotic associations between a fungus and an alga.

 

 

 

Question 23

 

Green algae such as Ulva demonstrate an alteration of generations. The diploid phase is called the

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

gametophyte generation.

 

 

 

  B.

 

diploid generation.

 

 

 

  C.

 

embryo.

 

 

 

  D.

 

zygote.

 

 

 

  E.

 

sporophyte generation.

 

Question 24

 

All members of the phylum Chordata share

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

exoskeletons.

 

 

 

  B.

 

a notochord present sometime in their lives.

 

 

 

  C.

 

tails present throughout their lives.

 

 

 

  D.

 

gills present throughout their lives.

 

 

 

  E.

 

a vertebral column.

 

 

 

Question 25

 

Which of the following are adaptations to land of both gymnosperms and angiosperms but are lacking in ferns and mosses?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

 

 

pollen and seeds

 

 

 

  B.

 

 

 

fruits and flowers

 

 

 

  C.

 

 

 

roots, stems, and leaves

 

 

 

  D.

 

 

 

spores

 

 

 

  E.

 

 

 

vascular system

 

 

 

Question 26

 

In plants, the secondary metabolites are primarily responsible for

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

protection against ultraviolet radiation.

 

 

 

  B.

 

overcoming air pollutants.

 

 

 

  C.

 

defense.

 

 

 

  D.

 

food gathering.

 

 

 

  E.

 

nutrition.

 

 

 

Question 27

 

In cnidarians, nematocysts are important in

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

obtaining prey.

 

 

 

  B.

 

obtaining oxygen from the water.

 

 

 

  C.

 

excretion of wastes.

 

 

 

  D.

 

food digestion.

 

 

 

  E.

 

movement.

 

 

 

Question 28

 

Which of the following is not a characteristic differentiating Neanderthals from modern humans?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

Neanderthals had projecting brow ridges.

 

 

 

  B.

 

Neanderthals were stronger.

 

 

 

  C.

 

Neanderthals were shorter.

 

 

 

  D.

 

Neanderthals had larger noses.

 

 

 

  E.

 

Neanderthals had smaller brains.

 

 

 

Question 29

 

The segmented worms of the phylum Annelida

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

move by use of flagella.

 

 

 

  B.

 

have an open circulatory system.

 

 

 

  C.

 

are acoelomate.

 

 

 

  D.

 

display radial symmetry.

 

 

 

  E.

 

possess setae on each segment.

 

 

 

Question 30

 

Fungi exhibit certain characteristics. One of these characteristics is that they

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

lack cell nuclei.

 

 

 

  B.

 

reproduce using seeds and pollen.

 

 

 

  C.

 

are prokaryotes.

 

 

 

  D.

 

reproduce using spores.

 

 

 

  E.

 

are capable of carrying on photosynthesis.

 

 

 

Question 31

 

Mammals have two traits that set them apart from all other animals. These are

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

four-chambered heart and milk production.

 

 

 

  B.

 

body hair or fur, and milk production.

 

 

 

  C.

 

amniotic eggs and milk production.

 

 

 

  D.

 

four-chambered heart and body hair or fur.

 

 

 

  E.

 

body hair or fur, and being homeothermic.

 

 

 

Question 32

 

All of the following are parts of a flower except the

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

cuticle.

 

 

 

  B.

 

fruit.

 

 

 

  C.

 

stamen.

 

 

 

  D.

 

ovary.

 

 

 

  E.

 

carpel.

 

 

 

Question 33

 

Which of the following characteristics is not shared by typical birds and mammals?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

four limbs

 

 

 

  B.

 

insulating skin structures

 

 

 

  C.

 

four-chambered heart

 

 

 

  D.

 

milk production

 

 

 

  E.

 

endothermy

 

 

 

Question 34

 

Plants have adapted to dry land by evolving all of the following except

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

tissues to conduct water through the plant.

 

 

 

  B.

 

structures to protect reproductive cells and embryos.

 

 

 

  C.

 

forms of chlorophyll more efficient at capturing light.

 

 

 

  D.

 

secreting a waxy coating to prevent water loss.

 

 

 

  E.

 

association with mycorrhizae to improve mineral uptake.

 

 

 

Question 35

 

Which of the following adaptations to life on land is found in both insects and modern reptiles?

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

tracheae to distribute oxygen

 

 

 

  B.

 

ability to fly

 

 

 

  C.

 

metamorphosis from a larval form

 

 

 

  D.

 

body surfaces that resist evaporation

 

 

 

  E.

 

two pairs of walking legs

 

 

 

Question 36

 

It is generally thought that four critical innovations arose during the evolution of our ape-like ancestors into humans. All of the following are innovations except

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

expansion of the human brain.

 

 

 

  B.

 

toolmaking.

 

 

 

  C.

 

development of the opposable thumb.

 

 

 

  D.

 

bipedalism.

 

 

 

  E.

 

use of brain power for abstract thought.

 

 

 

Question 37

 

In bryophytes, the rhizoids

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

obtain water.

 

 

 

  B.

 

obtain nutrients.

 

 

 

  C.

 

lure possible prey.

 

 

 

  D.

 

serve as attachment structures.

 

 

 

  E.

 

are involved in reproduction.

 

Question 38

 

In general, mammals are not good at dispersing chili plant seeds because

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

the seeds die as they pass through the digestive tract.

 

 

 

  B.

 

the chili seeds do not stick to the mammals’ fur.

 

 

 

  C.

 

chili seeds are dispersed mainly by the wind.

 

 

 

  D.

 

the mammals are the main pollinators for the chili plant.

 

 

 

  E.

 

the mammals do not travel very far before they release the chili seeds.

 

 

 

Question 39

 

It is generally thought that animals have undergone four major physiological and anatomical innovations during their evolution. These are (in no particular order)

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

development of tissues, photosynthesis, bilateral symmetry, multicellularity.

 

 

 

  B.

 

origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of the versatile forelimb, origin of the multichambered heart, multicellularity.

 

 

 

  C.

 

multicellularity, bilateral symmetry, origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of tissues.

 

 

 

  D.

 

bilateral symmetry, development of tissues, origin of the multichambered heart, origin of patterns of embryonic development.

 

 

 

  E.

 

development of the versatile forelimb, multicellularity, origin of patterns of embryonic development, development of tissues.

 

 

 

Question 40

 

Cnidarians and ctenophores are similar in that they both have

 

 

 

 

 

  A.

 

radial symmetry.

 

 

 

  B.

 

a pseudocoel.

 

 

 

  C.

 

nematocysts.

 

 

 

  D.

 

mesoderm.

 

 

 

  E.

 

a digestive tract with two openings.