Nsci 281 final exam solution (100% solution)

This is a 40-question final examination. Each question is worth 0.25 point.

1.     Plasma is ____ while formed elements are ____. 

a.    a blood gas; blood clots

b.    the liquid portion of blood; the cells

c.     lacking in protein; regulators of blood osmolality

d.    the cellular portion of blood; acellular components

e.     mostly protein; the matrix

2.    Which of the following cell types is an immature red blood cell?
a.    erythrocyte

b.    reticulocyte

c.    thrombocyte

d.    monocyte

e.    leukocyte

3.     In the platelet release reaction, 

a.     factor XII is activated

b.    ADP and thromboxanes stimulate other platelets to become activated

c.     activated platelets are connected by fibrinogen

d.    prostaglandin production is inhibited

e.     platelets convert to fibrin

4.     On the diagram of RBC production, what does “A” represent?
a.     increased blood oxygen

b.    decreased blood oxygen

c.     erythropoietin

d.    kidney

e.     red bone marrow

5.     The heart 

a.    is a four-chambered muscular pump

b.    is posterior to the trachea

c.     is lined with an epithelial layer called epicardium

d.    lies mostly to the right of the midline of the sternum

e.     has a superior apex and an inferior base

6.     Blood in the superior vena cava will enter the _____. 

a.     Aorta

b.    right atrium

c.     pulmonary trunk

d.    pulmonary arteries

e.    pulmonary veins

7.    Which of the following is mismatched?
a.    opening of sodium fast channels – depolarization

b.    closing of calcium slow channels – plateau phase

c.    opening of potassium channels – rapid repolarization

d.    closure of sodium channels – early repolarization

e.    opening of calcium slow channels – plateau phase

8.    Turbulence of blood flow through the aortic valve would give rise to
a.    the first heart sound

b.    the second heart sound

c.    a heart murmur

d.    an extra heart beat

e.    end-systolic volume

9.    Identify structure “A” on the heart diagram.

a.    left atrium

b.    aortic semilunar valve

c.    bicuspid (mitral) valve

d.    right atrium

e.    pulmonary semilunar valve

10.  Systemic blood vessels transport blood
a.    from the left ventricle through the body to the left atrium

b.    from the left ventricle through the body to the right atrium

c.    from the right ventricle through the body to the left atrium

d.    from the right ventricle through the body to the right atrium

e.     from the left ventricle to the lungs

11.  Veins 
a.    carry blood away from the heart

b.    carry blood under very high pressure

c.    may contain valves and are lined with endothelium

d.    are described as strong, rigid vessels that always carry oxygenated blood

e.    have thick, many layered walls

12.  Veins that return blood directly to the heart include the
a.    brachiocephalic vein

b.    superior vena cava

c.    portal vein

d.    azygos vein

e.    pulmonary arteries

13.  When the blood pressure of a vessel drops below the critical closing pressure for that vessel,
a.     there is hypertension

b.    there is an increase in blood flow

c.    there is an increase in peripheral resistance

d.    the vessel collapses

e.    the vessel expands

14.  The lymphatic system differs from the cardiovascular system in that
a.    the lymphatic system only carries fluid away from tissues

b.    the lymphatic vessels have their own “pump” to assist flow

c.    lymph capillaries do not contain any fluid

d.    lymph capillaries allow free movement of fluid in and out of the capillaries

e.     lymph circulates fluids and cardiovascular does not

15.  The structure in the thymus that prevents foreign substances from entering the thymus is the

a.    thymic corpuscle barrier

b.    blood-thymic barrier

c.    surface membrane barrier

d.    capsular barrier

e.    thymic filter

16.  Adaptive immunity is stimulated by
a.    Antigens

b.    Histamines

c.    Antibodies

d.    Complement

e.    plasma proteins

17.  What does “A” represent on the diagram?
a.    spleen

b.    thymus

c.    axillary lymph node

d.    inguinal lymph node

e.    thoracic duct

18.  Ventilation refers to the
a.    movement of air into and out of the lungs

b.    gas exchange between the blood and the tissues

c.    transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood

d.    gas exchange between the air in the lungs and the blood

e.    respiration at the cellular level

19.  Arrange the following structures in the order air passes through them during inhalation:
1: alveolar ducts
2: alveolus
3: respiratory bronchiole
4: terminal bronchiole
a.    1, 2, 3, 4

b.    2, 1, 3, 4

c.    4, 3, 1, 2

d.    3, 2, 1, 4

e.    4, 3, 2, 1

20.  Most carbon dioxide is transported in the blood 

a.    in the form of bicarbonate ions.

b.    bound to carbamino compounds.

c.    dissolved in the plasma.

d.    by the leukocytes.

e.    in the form of carbonic acid.

21. The diagram illustrates the major regulatory mechanisms of ventilation. What mechanism does “B” represent?

a.    Hering-Breuer reflex

b.    receptors for touch, temperature, pain stimuli

c.     medullary chemoreceptors

d.    carotid and aortic body chemoreceptors

e.    proprioceptors

22. Which of the following is a function performed by the digestive system?

a.     cellular respiration

b.    food selection

c.    elimination of undigested food

d.    regulation of blood pH

e.     integration and coordination of other systems

23. The tongue

a.    secretes saliva

b.    lays a major role in swallowing

c.    contains a lot of connective and lymphatic tissues

d.    is attached to the hard palate

e.    functions in deglutition apnea

24. Which of the following represents a mismatch in stomach wall structure?

a.    muscularis – two layers; both circular

b.    rugae – folds of mucosa and submucosa

c.    mucosa – gastric glands

d.    gastric pits – open onto surface of stomach mucosa

e.    lining – simple columnar epithelium

25. Blockage of the ileocecal valve would prevent

a.    pancreatic juice from entering the duodenum

b.    bile from entering the duodenum

c.    lymph from entering the jejunum

d.    chyme from entering the ileum

e.    chyme from entering the large intestine

26. Which of the following apply to the small intestine?

a.    Secretions from the liver and pancreas enter this organ

b.    Segmentation contractions occur in this organ

c.    Both digestion and absorption occur in this organ

d.    Mixing and propulsion of chyme.

e.    All of these choices apply to the small intestine

27. The diagram illustrates an absorptive structure in the duodenum. What does “A” represent?

a.    microvilli

b.    epithelial cell

c.    capillary

d.    lacteal

e.     villus

28. Nutrition includes the study of

a.    the nutrients in foods

b.    the body’s utilization of nutrients

c.     how nutrients play a role in your body’s health

d.    digestion, absorption, and transportation of nutrients

e.    All of these choices are correct

29. Excess triglycerides are stored in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue functions

a.    to assist the body in temperature homeostasis

b.    pads and protects

c.    energy storage

d.    insulates

e.    All of these choices are correct

30. The energy currency of the cell is a molecule called

a.    glucose

b.    pyruvate

c.    fat

d.    ADP

e.    ATP

31. The kidney functions in

a.    preventing blood loss

b.    white blood cell production

c.    synthesis of vitamin E

d.    excretion of nitrogenous wastes (such as urea)

e.    production of the hormone aldosterone

32. The portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting duct is the

a.   glomerulus.

b.   ascending loop of Henle.

c.   distal convoluted tubule.

d.   proximal convoluted tubule.

e.  descending loop of Henle.

32. Which of the following pressures tends to force fluid from the glomerulus through the filtration membrane into Bowman’s capsule?

a.    tubular pressure

b.    capsular pressure

c.    colloid osmotic pressure

d.    glomerular capillary pressure

e.    None of these choices is correct

33. Aldosterone targets cells in the 

a.    proximal convoluted tubule.

b.    loop of Henle.

c.    distal convoluted tubule.

d.    glomerulus.

e.    collecting duct.

33. Which of the following fluid compartments contains the largest volume of water?

a.    plasma

b.    interstitial compartment

c.    intracellular compartment

d.    extracellular compartment

e.    lymph

36. Elevated blood pressure under resting conditions results in increased urinary output because

a.     baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to increase ADH secretion.

b.    levated blood pressure stimulates renin secretion.

c.    the amount of angiotensin II formed is increased.

d.    aldosterone levels increase.

e.    baroreceptors signal the hypothalamus to decrease ADH secretion.

37. Calcitonin 

a.    promotes the absorption of calcium from the gastrointestinal tract.

b.    promotes osteoclast activity in the bones.

c.    reduces calcium excretion by the kidneys.

d.    reduces extracellular calcium ion levels.

e.    increases blood calcium levels.

38. The location of the testes and epididymides in the scrotum

a.   allows more room for other organs in the abdominal cavity.

b.   keeps these organs close to the penis.

c.    provides a temperature that is suitable for normal sperm development.

d.    keeps them isolated from the accessory glands of the system.

e.    helps to protect them.

39. Shortly after ovulation,

a.    the granulosa cells become corpus luteum cells.

b.    estrogen increases but progesterone decreases.

c.    the level of LH rises even more than before ovulation.

d.    GnRH receptors upregulate.

e.    corpus luteum degenerates.

40. What does “C” on the diagram represent?

a.    vagina

b.    cervix

c.    uterus

d.    ovary

e.    uterine tube