Physical assessment questions about head, neck, eyes, nose, throat.? | Nursing

1.Compare landmarks of the neck on a male versus those on a female. Which is the largest endocrine gland in the body, and what two hormones does it produce?  In older adults, why does the thyroid gland become more fibrotic?  : Beginning after 16 weeks of gestation, many pregnant women develop blotchy, brownish hyperpigmentation of the face, particularly over the malar prominences and the forehead. Name this condition. A newborn admitted to the nursery is observed to have bruising on the side of the face and molding. What pertinent history must be obtained concerning this newborn? List the techniques necessary for accurate thyroid gland examination. Examination of a newborn 24 hours after birth reveals subcutaneous edema in the parietal region, which when palpated is firm and well defined and does not cross suture lines. What is the physiologic basis of this finding? Name the technique used for every newborn and older infant who has a suspected intracranial lesion or rapidly increasing head circumference    Ectropion.      ectropion  Which structures comprise the external eye?   The four rectus and two oblique muscles attached to the eye are innervated by which cranial nerves?  Compare and contrast changes in the eye associated with the following conditions: a.     Hyperthyroidism b.     Cataracts c.     Diabetes mellitus d.     Glaucoma e.     Chronic hypertension How is visual acuity recorded, and what does it indicate?  What is characterized by loss of definition of the optic disc that initially occurs superiorly and inferiorly and then nasally and temporally?  Differentiate between flame-shaped, round, and dot hemorrhages.  At 3 years of age, what visual acuity is expected?  Which disorder is caused by the interruption of the sympathetic nerve supply to the eye and results in ipsilateral miosis and mild ptosis?    What are the functions of the ear?  What are the functions of the nose and nasopharynx? Compare the risk factors for hearing loss in infants and children versus those for adults. Explain the effect of anticholinergic drugs on oral mucous membranes. : Otitis Externa, Acute Otitis Media, and Otitis Media with Effusion.  Create a chart differentiating these conditions by listing signs and symptoms of each. Explain the potential effect on nasopharynx or oropharynx development if substance abuse occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy  During a routine examination of a 3-month-old infant, the mother becomes concerned because her child will not turn his head toward a sound. What is the appropriate response to give this mother? Describe the measures required to carry out a safe otoscopic examination on a toddler. : A pregnant woman at 21 weeks of gestation is concerned about her decreased sense of smell and loss of hearing. What is the cause of this patient’s concerns? Discuss the risk factors of oral cancer. An older male patient tells you that he is experiencing a sudden hearing loss. What is the priority consideration?  : An infant’s hearing may be impaired as a result of an insult to him or her during which trimester of pregnancy?  : A negative Rinne test result, or bone conduction heard longer than air conduction in the affected ear, is indicative of which type of hearing loss? DK is a 29-year-old patient who presents to the health clinic with multiple complaints. His past medical history includes allergies and allergic rhinitis.  His social history includes cigarette smoking. His family history includes a mother who had allergies and a father who had asthma. The signs and symptoms include cough worse at night, purulent nasal discharge, frontal headache, maxillary sinus tenderness on palpation, orbital swelling, and maxillary tooth pain. 1. Identify the patient’s signs of sinusitis. 2. Identify the patient’s symptoms of sinusitis. 3. What is the primary etiology of the sinusitis?