The following require you to write a short essay consisting of a few paragraphs (two-three paragraphs).
1. Explain the similarities and differences between classical conditioning (a simple form of learning in which one stimulus calls fourth the response that is usually called forth by another stimulus) and operant conditioning (where people and animals learn to do certain things and not to do others because of the results of what they do). Give an example of each type.
2. Explain how memories are retrieved, including both context-dependent and state-dependent memories. Describe how memory retrieval can be disrupted.
3. Describe the first three stages in language development: crying, cooing, and babbling. Explain the achievements and problems encountered at each stage.
4. Describe the ways in which environmental factors, including the home environment, styles of parenting and schooling can contribute to high levels of intelligence in children.
5. Describe the different ways that behavioralists, Gestalt psychologists and social-learning theorists think that people learn.