1. As you are reading this question right now, you are consciously processing the meaning of the words in which stage of memory?
a. sensory memory
b. short-term memory
c. long-term memory
d. episodic memory
2. At age 80, Bonita recalls the wonderful summers she spent with her grandparents during her childhood. She talks about the market in town where you could buy freshly churned ice cream and garden vegetables, the county fair, and bonfires where her grandmother would make s’mores for the family. Bonita’s recollections are an example of _____
a. sensory memory
b. short-term memory
c. long term memory
d. recognition memory
3. Which of the following is NOT a possible cause of forgetting described in your textbook?
c. encoding failure
4. According to Freud, _____ memories remain unconscious yet are still capable of influencing behavior and personality.
5. To help understand how neurons change in response to the formation of a new memory, researchers have extensively studied:
a. the sea snail Aplysia.
b. undergraduate psychology students.
d. a man known by the initials H.M.
6. Keisha is determined to ace her microbiology final. Which of the following strategies would be LEAST likely to improve her memory for the material covered in her microbiology textbook?
a. outlining the chapter information in a way that shows how information is related
b. going without sleep the night before the exam and studying right up until she takes the test
c. using the photographs and diagrams in the text to help create visual memories of the material
d. spending extra time on material in the middle of the chapter
7. While Mary was reading a story about the Australian Outback adventures of Billy and his dog, she had no problem visualizing the arid countryside, the unusual animals that lived there, and the various people that Billy and his dog met in their journeys. Mary is using:
a. mental imagery.
b. a mental set
d. a heuristic
8. When Jean-Claude came back from skiing he wanted to brew a cup of coffee. Because he was out of coffee filters, he settled for tea. Jean-Claude’s failure to realize he could use a paper towel as a coffee filter best illustrates:
a. a mental set.
b. flexible cognition.
c. functional fixedness.
d. the availability heuristic.
9. Research suggests that the _____ is most likely to be used when people rely on information involving vivid memories to determine the likelihood of events occurring.
a. elimination-by-aspects model
b. representative heuristic
c. additive model
d. availability heuristic
10. Dr. Mathias believes that behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension caused by unmet biological needs that “push” us to behave in certain ways. Dr. Mathias’s views are most consistent with _____ theories of motivation.
11. The desire to avoid boredomis to _____ theoryas the desire to drink when thirstyis to _____ theory.
a. arousal; drive
b. drive; arousal
c. humanistic; incentive
d. incentive; humanistic
12. Nate wonders how his friend Jim can wake up at 5:00 every morning to swim laps before school. When he asks about it, Jim replies that he simply wants to realize his highest personal potential in swimming. Jim’s explanation is most consistent with _____ theories of motivation.
13. Which of the following could be referred to as “the hunger hormone” because it stimulates a person’s appetite?
14.Which of the following statements BEST describes deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)?
a. a harmful chemical preservative that is a known teratogen
b. a specific gene that is known to be associated with several serious birth defects
c. a double-stranded molecule that encodes genetic instructions
d. the chemical “trigger” that activates cell division in the developing embryo
15. The term _____ refers to the characteristics that are actually observed in an organism, and these characteristics depend on which genes get expressed.
16. Humans carry all of the genes necessary to develop a tail, but we typically don’t develop tails because:
a. those genes are never activated.
b. those genes can only be activated by external factors that no longer exist in our present environment.
c. we have also inherited a copy of the dominant “no-tails” gene.
d. we have also inherited two recessive “no-tails” genes.
17. Mr. and Ms. Belmont are the parents of five-month-old Veronica. Although Veronica slept in the same bed as her parents for the first few months of life, she now sleeps in her own room. According to research on U.S. families, which of the following reasons explain why the Belmonts probably moved Veronica to her own bed?
a. Mr. and Ms. Belmont are probably trying for another baby.
b. Mr. and Ms. Belmont want to encourage interdependence in Veronica.
c. Mr. and Ms. Belmont want to encourage independence and self-reliance.
d. Mr. and Ms. Belmont are concerned that Veronica is not getting enough sleep.
18. Vicki was sitting in the rocking chair and playing with her doll. She dropped the doll, which landed out of view behind the rocking chair. A few moments later, Vicki climbed down and retrieved the doll. Vicki’s behavior suggests that she has acquired the understanding of:
a. object permanence.
b. abstract reasoning.
19. Thirty-year-old Alayna is painfully shy and so sensitive to rejection that she rarely talks to people other than her co-workers and her family members. Occasionally, a man asks her out, but she always refuses. She spends a good deal of time reading and writing in her diary about her loneliness and other feelings. According to Erikson’s theory, Alayna is facing the psychosocial conflict of _____ and is likely to develop _____.
a. industry versus inferiority; inferiority
b. autonomy versus guilt; guilt
c. generativity versus stagnation; stagnation
d. intimacy versus isolation; isolation
20. Tracy is very fit and energetic. She goes to aerobics classes four times a week, and she is considered by many to be very feminine, especially by her same-sex partner. Tracy’s sense of femininity is her _____, and her attraction to a member of the same sex is her _____.
a. gender; gender role
b. gender identity; sexual orientation
c. sex; gender identity
d. sexual orientation; gender identity
21. Young Bobby is anxious, fearful, and soft-hearted. Because of these characteristics, his father is worried that Bobby is not masculine enough. Bobby’s father is endorsing:
b. benevolent sexism.
c. gender-role stereotypes.
d. unconscious repression.
22. In looking at gender differences on emotion, psychologist Agneta Fischer and her colleagues analyzed cross-cultural data from 37 countries around the world. The researchers found that across cultures:
a. women report experiencing and expressing more sadness, fear, and guilt, while men report experiencing and expressing more anger and hostility.
b. men are more emotionally expressive than women in private, but not public, settings.
c. men and women reported experiencing exactly the same emotions, but only men freely expressed anger and guilt.
d. men are significantly more accurate than women in interpreting the emotional meaning of nonverbal cues.
23. Cindy is a 15 year-old high school cheerleader living in the south-central region of the United States. When she learned that she had been cut from the squad for the next academic year, Cindy flew into a fit of rage and punched her cheerleading coach in the nose. In the terminology of your textbook, Cindy’s outburst violated which type of display rules?
24. Gender schema theory is to _____ as social learning theory is to _____.
a. cognitive categories; reinforcement, punishment, and modeling
b. genetics; environment
c. reinforcement, punishment, and modeling; cognitive categories
d. environment; genetics
25. Carl was born a female (Carla) but feels more authentic now that he is living as a man. Recently, Carl has been encouraged by his friends to engage in strength training (lifting weights) because it is “what men do.” As a woman, Carl was never encouraged to do strength training because he was told that this would “make him bulky like a man.” This example illustrates the _____ perspective.
a. social learning
c. social identity
26. Amy was born a woman but underwent hormonal treatments and sex reassignment surgery. Now Amy is known as Allen, a man. Based on the information in your textbook, Allen is best described as:
27. For medical reasons, 25-year-old Nadine has to have both of her ovaries surgically removed. Following the operation, Nadine is likely to experience:
a. a steep drop in sexual interest and sexual activity.
b. an increase in the production of estrogen.
c. homosexual feelings and urges.
d. little or no drop in her normal level of sexual interest and sexual activity.
28. For most of his adult life, Bob has become sexually aroused any time he rides a roller coaster. On several occasions, he has been banned from fairs and carnivals because the other patrons find his appearance to be indecent. Based on the information in your textbook, Bob probably suffers from:
a. a paraphilia.
b. male orgasmic disorder.
c. an erectile disorder.
d. sexual sadism disorder.
29. Which of the following is NOT one of John Gottman’s suggestions for improving communication and conflict resolution in marriages and other relationships?
a. Be aware of personality differences in handling conflicts.
b. The male should actively try to avoid conflict with his female partner.
c. Avoid personal attacks in raising issues that need to be resolved.
d. Call a time-out if either partner begins to feel overwhelmed by his or her emotions.
30. Gina and her boyfriend have been arrested on several occasions for having sex with each other in public elevators. This type of inappropriate sexual behavior is termed:
a. transvestic disorder.
b. pedophilic disorder.
c. voyeurism disorder
d. exhibitionistic disorder.
31. Based on research that has been conducted so far, what can be concluded about the causes of sexual orientation?
a. Researchers cannot say with certainty why people become homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.
b. Most researchers are now convinced that sexual orientation is primarily the result of environmental influences.
c. Researchers are sure that homosexuality is caused by unpleasant early heterosexual experiences.
d. Most researchers are now convinced that sexual orientation is almost certainly caused by genetic factors and that other factors have little or no influence.
32. Researchers have investigated possible gender differences in the frequency of daily hassles. What does this research show? Researchers have investigated possible gender differences in the frequency of daily hassles. What does this research show?
a. Women experience more daily hassles and higher levels of stress associated with friends and family than men.
b. Men experience more daily hassles and higher levels of stress than women.
c. There are no gender differences in the number of daily hassles experienced.
d. Although women report more daily hassles than men, they experience significantly less stress because they use more effective coping strategies.
33. In their survey research, investigators interested in the relationship between racism and chronic stress found that three-quarters of African American adolescents reported being treated as incompetent or dangerous, or both, because of their race. Such subtle instances of racism are called:
a. daily hassles.
b. acculturative stressors.
c. life change units.
34. Although it is obvious to most of Bernie’s friends and family that he drinks too much, his wife Betsy refuses to admit that he has a drinking problem. She insists that he is a moderate drinker who has the occasional glass of red wine for medicinal purposes. In this situation it is possible that Betsy is using an emotion-focused coping strategy called:
a. wishful thinking.
35. Traumatic events are events or situations that:
a. occur every day and annoy or upset people.
b. are perceived as positive, life-changing events.
c. are negative, severe, and far beyond our normal expectations for everyday life.
d. are chronic and prolonged and lead to exhaustion.