Respond to (2) classmate”s(wk-3-dq-2)(6-3-18) | Psychology homework help


Lydia C.


Psychological testing is the branch of psychology in which we use standardized tests, construct them in order to understand the individual differences. Development of good psychological test requires thoughtful and sound application of established principles of test construction. 

According to Martinez, M. (2015, March 03), one of the stages is Reliability of final test. There are 2 types of reliability, Internal  and external . Internal reliability assesses the consistency of results across items within a test. External reliability refers to the extent to which a measure varies from one use to another. In this stage random and systematic errors are checked for. Random error exists in every measurement and is often major source of uncertainty. Systematic error is caused due to instruments, machines, and measuring tools. It is not due to individuals. Systematic error is acceptable we can fix and handled it.

To check reliability the methods used are, test retest, alternate form and split-half method. Test-retest method is the commonly used methods of testing reliability. The test retest method assesses the external consistency of a test. Examples of appropriate tests include questionnaires and psycho metric tests. It measures the stability of a test over time. In alternate form two equivalent forms of the test are administered to the same group of examinees. An individual has given one form of the test and after a period of time the person is given a different version of the same test. The split half method assesses the internal consistency of a test. It measures the extent to which all parts of the test contribute equally to what is being measured. The test is technically spitted into odd and even form. 

Martinez, M. (2015, March 03). Stages of test development. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.

Psychological testing: Construction, Administration, Validity. (n.d.). Retrieved from

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Dawn A.


When looking at the stages of test development we see the processes that need to take place for a test to have the ability to be reliable and valid. Without the processes the test completion cannot take place. I chose Phase II due to wanting to discuss the need for structure and formatting.

Within testing one sees that without structure there cannot be a valid process to present as a founded research to be reviewed. The test structure is that of finding appropriate testing format to include age ranges of subjects, sub-scales, item formatting, finding specifications for the test as well as scales of measurement to work off of as well (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013).

The formatting comes from the ability to create steps within the research process. This, in turn, is where the need for the reliability and validity to be ensured within the given research process. Within Phase II there are also levels of formats used and these define the different aspects of the research and create definition of factors that are being measured. The factors being measured are often that of the subjects data ends up reading (American Psychological Association, 1999). This is found in the results as we know, but having the ability to utilize different formats of measurement, gives a broader perspective on the results and where they fall within the needed data overall.

The structure of the test and the development is clearly defined within Phase II as well. Specifications are noted and measurement standards are mentioned and planned out as well. Levels of measurement include: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and lastly evaluation (Reynolds & Livingston, 2013). These processes help develop the test and keep the standards high and the ethics understood. Within the accuracy of the measurements the results can be concluded once the test has been evaluated and reviewed, thus creating a process that can then be implemented.

American Psychological Association. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. American Education Research , pp. 1-5.

Reynolds, C., & Livingston, R. (2013). Mastering modern psychological testing: Theory & methods. Pearson Higher Education.

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