· Response Guidelines
Reply to the posts of two peers in this discussion. You may want to share insights you have related to your peer’s application of research concepts, or ask a clarifying question. You may choose to comment on how the article presented by your peer is relevant to your own professional interests. Each peer response need to have at least two references.
1st Peer posting
Chang et al. (2016) conducted a study to determine if there was an answer to the contradicting study results regarding the brain activity in schizophrenics and their siblings. Earlier research has given mixed results stating that schizophrenics have excessive brain activity and others show that they have incoherent activity. The same mixed results showed up in research on siblings of schizophrenics. This study used amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) as well as regional homogeneity (Reho). The used the ALFF and Reho to track the intensity as well as any synchronization of local spontaneous neuronal activity among three groups of participants (Chang et al., 2016).
Repovs and Barch (2012) conducted a study using a similar research design but instead they were looking for how functional connectivity may differ in schizophrenics when there is no cognitive task involved, a light cognitive task, and then a more demanding cognitive task. The study used participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia and their siblings, and health individuals and their siblings. These four different groups helped to determine if there was any difference between a sibling of an individual with schizophrenia compared to siblings that were not impaired. The study focused on the working memory of the individuals. fMRI scans were used as well as other basic imaging and recall memory assessment activities (Repovs & Barch, 2012).
The study conducted by Chang et al. (2016) was using reliable testing techniques in regards to the neuronal activity that was tracked. The sample size was not very large but did have the randomized factor by comparing the results to not one but two variables (siblings and non-related healthy individuals). Had the sample size been larger the results could likely be more generalizable. The participants were gathered using participants from a other studies the researchers had done. There were 27 participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, 27 non effected siblings, and 27 healthy unrelated participants. The research design was used to map the activity in the brain of all three groups in different circumstances so they could compare the results to find any commonalities or clear differences. This method of research helped to determine if there was any validity to the claims of either excessive brain activity or incoherent activity in schizophrenics and their siblings. This study seems to be a quasi-experimental study since it has a group used for comparison but it does not use random assignment (Sherperis, Young & Daniels, 2010).
Chang, et al., (2016). Abnormally increased and incoherent resting-state activity is shared between patients with schizophrenia and their unaffected siblings, Schizophrenia Research, 171(1-3), 158-165.
Repovš, G., & Barch, D. M. (2012). Working Memory Related Brain Network Connectivity in Individuals with Schizophrenia and Their Siblings. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 6, 137.
Sheperis, C. J., Young, J. S., & Daniels, M. H. (2010). Counseling research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education Inc.
2nd Peer Posting
When using an experimental research design the purpose of it is to use a controlled variable and test it upon two separate subjects or groups and compare the results based upon what the hypothesis of the experiment was. An example of this would be testing the effects of a medicine and using one group that will take the medicine and another control group that will take a placebo to see if the medicine has any effect or resolve to what the problem is they are taking it for like reducing anxiety. When using a non-experimental research design the purpose of it is to test a variable that cannot be controlled. An example of this could be observing someone in their natural environment, like a senior with Alzheimers in a nursing home and at home with family.
The study I found to address an experimental research design was done with the purpose of testing the effects using TF-CBT as well as components of parent interactions with the child with parent availability to the child and the relationship of the parents and child on children that have witnessed IPV or intimate partner violence (Visser, et al., 2015). In order to test this they set up multiple assessments including pre-treatment, post-treatment, and a 6-month follow-up and to test whether the components of parent interactions with the child make a difference they used two groups, one that went through a prep program for how to work with the children through TF-CBT and another group that did a no-prep program and just learned about the TF-CBT and nothing else. To determine the data group children were referred to the program group and then parent permission was needed for participation (Visser, et al., 2015). To address the data collection surveys were used like the Trauma Symptom Checklist for Younger Children was used to check trauma symptoms and the Child Behavior Checklist evaluated children’s behaviors based upon parent’s observations. For other observations the Children’s Depression Inventory, Emotional Awareness Questionnaire, Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, Self-Control Scale, Child Dissociation Checklist, and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (Visser, et al., 2015). To analyze the information the checklists/surveys were done before, after, and 6 months later to determine any significant differences between the two groups and whether the added components of parents addressing behavioral issues as well as trauma symptoms made a difference (Visser, et al., 2015).
For the non-experimental research design the study was done to test the effect of combat exposure on soldiers in the Midwestern Army National Guard unit as well as their effects on the soldier’s spouses and children (Herzog, Everson, & Whitworth, 2011). They looked at the relationship between combat exposure and trauma symptoms, substance abuse, domestic violence and secondary trauma symptoms among family members of the soldier (Herzog, Everson, & Whitworth, 2011). In terms of research design what made this one different from the experimental is that this study was done on a specific group of people, being the Midwestern Army Soldier unit, and giving them a survey, the PTSD checklist and HITS in this case, and having it filled out and looking at the results of the survey (Herzog, Everson, & Whitworth, 2011).
Herzog, J. R., Everson, R. B., & Whitworth, J. D. (2011). Do Secondary Trauma Symptoms in Spouses of Combat-Exposed National Guard Soldiers Mediate Impacts of Soldiers’ Trauma Exposure on Their Children? Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal,28(6), 459-473. doi:10.1007/s10560-011-0243-z
Visser, M. M., Telman, M. D., Schipper, J. C., Lamers-Winkelman, F., Schuengel, C., & Finkenauer, C. (2015). The effects of parental components in a trauma-focused cognitive behavioral based therapy for children exposed to interparental violence: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. BMC Psychiatry,15(1). doi:10.1186/s12888-015-0533-7