Response to the following discussion

The system resources include both human and nonhuman resources that are very essential for the delivery of health care services. HR comprise of the workers that are in coordinate contact with patients, for example, doctors, medical caretakers, dental practitioners, and other prepared experts. Various subordinate specialists, for example, those included in billing and collection, marketing and public relations, and building maintenance, frequently play critical yet aberrant strong parts in the delivery of the health care(Shi & Singh, 2017). 

Shi, L., & Singh, D. (2017). Essentials of   the U.S. Health Care System(Fourth ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones &   Bartlett Learning.



As we all know, the U.S. health care system is complex. This is largely due to our non-universal system, which has led to continual efforts to make health care affordable and accessible to all citizens. The tangled web of the U.S. health care delivery system consists of various subsystems that are geared toward certain populations i.e. the military. Then, there is also the matter of private versus government aided insurance. Access to quality, affordable health care are the objectives of a health care delivery system. In the U.S., having insurance is the primary way to obtain even the most basic health care. This is one of the main characteristics (and primary concerns) of our health care system. The Affordable Care Act of 2010 was enacted in attempt to improve access to health insurance, but the issue remains for many (Shi & Singh, 2017, p.1).

The U.S. health care delivery system is defined by ten characteristics. The foremost being no centralized governing agency. This allows for both private and public financing, leading to a costlier system. While the government has a say in health care policy, their reach into private delivery systems is limited. The governments subsidiary role acts as another characteristic of the system. Because there are so many players in the U.S. health care delivery game, it can create a power struggle (another characteristic). With so many individual interests, making any significant change to the system is almost impossible. Another characteristic is the focus on technology. America is leading the way in health care technological research. However, the demand/use of these advanced care technology are costly. Costly in terms of the cost of health care itself, as well as the resources need to research/maintain the technology. The increasing cost of health care leads right into the characteristic of the tremendous disparity between the high cost of health care, the unequal access to quality care across the nation, and the overall health of the nation being simply average if not below. The imperfect market conditions of health care services marks yet another characteristic. The U.S. system is defined as an imperfect market versus a true free market for multiple reason to include external agencies (insurance agencies) acting as payers for services as opposed to the patient themselves. This also effects a patient’s “free” ability to select providers based on quality and price. These imperfections also effect the delivery system as it tries to balance market justice and social justice i.e. people having the ability to pay versus the idea that denying people access due to the inability to pay is unfair. While most of these characteristics are directly related to the citizens and insurance agencies, the final characteristic is for the providers. The legalities of practicing medicine are vast, and in attempt to protect themselves from malpractice lawsuits providers engage in defensive medicine to ensure diagnostic accuracy. “With his mouth the godless man would destroy his neighbor, but by knowledge the righteous are delivered” Proverbs 11:9 ESV. Given the all too common reaction of Americans to file lawsuits, this practice is somewhat understandable. However, these additional procedures/appointments only continue to drive up cost (Shi & Singh, 2017, pgs. 9-19).

The framework of a system helps to understand the interworking’s of the health care delivery system. Janecka (2009) describes a system as consisting of many components with boundaries that protect the internal environment from the external environment. Also, the struggles of a complex system, such as the U.S. health care system, are often directly related to failing subsystems (2009, p.3). System resources are one element of a system framework. In terms of health care, resources include health professionals, facility administrators, and financial resources. Then there are the system processes which vary across medical facilities and/or insurance companies. Finally, system outcomes are the results of the system processes. The outcomes allow facilitators to evaluate if the organization is meeting its objectives and how to improve its processes (Shi & Singh, 2017, pgs. 23-25).


Janecka, I. P. (2009). Is U.S. health care an appropriate system? A strategic perspective from systems science. Health Research Policy and Systems, 7, 1-13.


Piña, I. L., Cohen, P. D., Larson, D. B., Marion, L. N., Sills, M. R., Solberg, L. I., & Zerzan, J. (2015). A framework for describing health care delivery organizations and systems. American Journal of Public Health, 105(4), 670–679.



Shi, L., & Singh, D. A. (2017). Essentials of the U.S. health care system — with access (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.