Evaluations on Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among veterans is imperative for a positive health outcome. The evaluations and analysis of the results ensure that barriers to treatment are addressed and have access to the available support systems. Studies carried out have depicted the successes of the treatments and support programs in the health systems to veterans. Modifications on the systems have also been recommended to combat and control PTSD. Alternative approaches such as computerized systems, natural treatment methods, and home-based systems are also essential in providing a holistic approach in PTSD treatments. Treatment methods success ensures that veterans do not fall victim to depression, which can result in chronic diseases. This can be as a result of negative health behaviors and lifestyles. Understanding the consequences of PTSD among veterans will ensure that approaches utilized offer not only treatment methods but also offer support systems for general wellbeing.
The first source focuses on the treatment and success of three-week outpatient program by “evaluating patterns and predictors of symptom change during a three-week intensive outpatient treatment for veterans with PTSD.” The study is evidence-based on statistics drawn from the program and modifications for optimal success rates. 191 veterans were the participants in the research comprising of a daily group and individual Cognitive Processing Therapy (Zalta et al., 2018). The data was analyzed from the sample cohorts in accordance with military and demographic characteristics. Measures in the study involved treatment engagement as well as comparison of pre-treatment and post-treatment changes (Zalta et al., 2018). The results showed progress in the evaluation of predictors and patterns in treatment changes. Procedures utilized involved group sessions with daily activities for the development of the treatment program. Self-report metrics were also applied in the procedures as control groups were challenging in the study. Modified and intensive outpatient (IOP) treatment to veterans showed high success levels in the program (Zalta et al., 2018).
The second source examines a new treatment in exploring the feasibility of computerized, placebo-controlled, and home-based executive function training (EFT) on psychological and neuropsychological functions. The source titled “Computer-based executive function training for combat veterans with PTSD” shows trials in assessing feasibility and predictors output. The study shows how the functions can be useful in brain activation combating PTSD in veterans. Symptoms experienced after treatment on PTSD cases are stimulated through neural and cognition reactivity, which can be controlled through the new methods (Clausen et al., 2019). The study comprised of 52 male combat veterans from a community sample. The participants were recruited via advertisements and informational flyers. Procedures involved neuropsychological assessment and fMRI scans (Clausen et al., 2019). Data logistic regression models were utilized for data analysis. Additionally, linear mixed models were integrated into the analysis to assess changes in brain processing. The research designs enabled the researchers to create evidence-based arguments on EFT integration and acceptance in PTSD treatment.
The third source on “nature-based therapy as a treatment for veterans with PTSD” provides an alternative in PTSD treatment methods. The holistic approach can be used successfully instead of strong medications to veterans (Poulsen, 2017). Nature-based Therapy (NBT) can be effective in reducing conventional treatment methods used. Negative outcomes can be recorded from data analysis on medical intervention approaches (Poulsen, 2017). The study used search papers published between 1995 and 2016. Procedures in the approach involved review and testing of medical intervention effectiveness. Reviews on the papers included qualitative data assessment before analysis following various documented recommendations. Literature review from existing research data on veterans involved an examination of different interventions used. The deeper insights provided through the papers contributed to different perspectives (Poulsen, 2017). Frequency, length, and outcome measures of medical interventions were effective in the research design. The methodologies also utilize comparison of therapies in different target groups according to diagnosis to provide results.
The fourth study, “screening and treatment of moral injury (MI) in veterans/active duty military with PTSD,” articulates the new form of PTSD. Moral injury is referred to “as the spiritual, emotional, and moral consequences of committing or observing others’ transgressions” and their impacts (Koening et al., 2019). Combat experiences and military-related trauma as a new syndrome requires more evaluations and studies. New approaches in treating the syndrome as it is associated with PTSD can be essential in the reintegration of veterans to civil life (Koening et al., 2019). The study involved a review of veterans, investigators, clinical officers, and nurses in identifying the syndrome in clinical practice. 427 veterans were chosen to evaluate combat-related PTSD syndromes, which result in Moral Injury. The procedures involved the review of Koening articles in the identification and addressing the syndrome. The methodology is effective in explaining why forgiveness healing moral injuries are entwined for positive mental health outcomes (Koening et al., 2019).
The last article is based on “PTSD is associated with poor health behavior and greater body mass index through depression, increasing cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk among U.S veterans.” The authors depict how PTSD can worsen other health aspects of the veterans due to adopted health behaviors. Poor health behaviors act as risk factors in diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (Hoerster et al., 2019). Depression results in unhealthy behaviors increasing body mass, smoking habits, reduced physical activity, and poor diets. Research methods involved sampling of veterans with the chosen been emailed surveys. 1804 participants were selected with, 717 veterans completing the surveys. $10 canteen coupons were awarded to veterans who completed the survey. Data analysis was through “descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations among variables.” Procedures involved measures variable selection as hypothesized in the parent study. Additionally, the variables were categorized as exogenous or endogenous against the time frame and score ranges (Hoerster et al., 2019). This methodology provided evidence on depression symptoms, which can trigger poor health behaviors in negative health outcomes.
I find the studies to have observed ethical standards in the research. Participants’ confidentiality, as well as anonymity, is retained in all studies. Additionally, researchers were able to join efforts with other organizations concerned with veterans to obtain data in an ethical manner. Participants are also able to participate willingly in the sample population. Approval and consent to participate are obtained on study assessments as part of ethical care in procedures. Offering the veterans, a canteen coupon for participation is within the ethical approvals of research. The coupon is given on the consent of the participant to offers information to contribute towards the study. Additionally, data sets in the sample population are not made available as only the authors of the articles have the right to utilize them.
In my opinion, evaluations of PTSD symptoms among veterans can result in different treatment methods that are more effective and successful in health. This will involve understanding the consequences and burdens the veterans bear in overcoming events witnessed during the serving period. The integration of both medical and conventional intervention methods can be useful in improving cognitive and neural performances. Clinical symptoms also have to provide appropriate predictions for effectiveness in treatment and support systems. This will require more investigations and reviews on the cognitive processing of veterans through post-treatment and pre-treatment tests. The evaluations will enhance the consistency of approaches adopted to deliver treatment to veterans who have PTSD.
Causes, treatments, and support systems in veteran PTSD clinical settings utilize different approaches for success. Through the studies reviewed, different symptoms are displayed in different sample population members. Evaluation of the approaches is imperative in ensuring consistency and quality in treatment delivery services as well as modifications in the programs. Different responses are expected from the programs as each veteran is unique in terms of neural and cognitive processing. The integration of interventions with support and care can be effective in improving accessibility to treatment. Additionally, identification of Moral Injury symptoms is essential in helping the veterans reintegrate into civilian life. Emotional and spiritual wellbeing matters in the integration process. This can be through forgiveness programs as supported by churches and families. Depression, due to PTSD, can result in poor health behaviors. Such behaviors impact lifestyles negatively, resulting in chronic diseases that are challenging to manage. Treatment adherence is also promoted through the success of the programs reducing dropout rates in medical interventions. Therefore, treatment and support programs are essential in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among veterans.
Clausen, A., Thelen, J., Francisco, A., Bruce, J., Martin, L., McDowd, J. & Auppperle, L. (2019). Computer-based executive function training for combat veterans with PTSD: a pilot clinical trial assessing feasibility and predictors dropout. Frontiers in psychiatry. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ucamia.cobimet4.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00062
Hoerster, K., Campbell, s, Dolan, M., Stappenbeck, C, Yard, S., Simpson, T. & Nelson, K. (2019). PTSD is associated with poor health behavior and greater Body Mass Index through depression, increasing cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk among U.S veterans. Preventive medicine reports 15. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ucamia.cobimet4.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2019.100930
Koening, H., Ames, D. & Bussing, A. (2019). Editorial: screening for and treatment of moral injury in veterans/active duty military with PTSD. Frontiers in psychiatry. Retrieved from https://doi-org.ucamia.cobimet4.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00596
Poulsen, D. (2017). Nature-based therapy as a treatment for veterans with PTSD: what do we know?journal of public mental health 16(1). Retrieved from https://doi-org.ucamia.cobimet4.org/10.1108/JPMH-08-2016-0039
Zalta, A., Held, P., Smith, D, Lofgreen, A., Brenna, M., Rydberg, T., Boley, R., Pollack, M. & Karnik, N. (2018). Evaluating patterns and predictors of symptom change during a three-week intensive outpatient treatment for veterans with PTSD. BMC psychiatry 18(242). Retrieved from https://doi-org.ucamia.cobimet4.org/10.1186/s12888-018-1816-6