Week 5 | Psychology homework help

  

Parenting the Adolescent https://edge.apus.edu/messageforums-tool/images/collapse.gif?sakai.tool.placement.id=8fe3d532-843c-485b-aa89-eb62749cdfbfView Full Description

It is often said that there is much similarity in adolescent and toddler development. In fact, some say that the toddler you had comes back as a teenager. Given what you have read about parenting the toddler (Week 3) and the adolescent (Week 5) describe at least one similarity and one difference and describe how parenting is both the same and different.  Please note in your post the relevant developmental stages and how parents effectively meet them. 

Parenting changes as children get older, offering new challenges to parents at home. School-age children spend more time away from home, and their interactions with others become increasingly complex. Parents maintain many of the same fundamental responsibilities with school-age children as they did with preschoolers. They need to continue to provide love and affection, to set age-appropriate rules and boundaries, and to support physical, cognitive and social development.

Topics to be covered include:

  • Normal physical, emotional and social development in      during the elementary school and early teen years
  • Ways parents can support their child’s development      during the elementary school and early teen years
  • Techniques to help parents maintain positive relationships      with their adolescents as they become more independent and move toward      adulthood
  • Techniques to help school-age children develop positive      relationships with family and peers
  • Ways parents can promote healthy lifestyles with school      age children
  • Effects of media use on children’s development

· Sleep

· Sleep helps attention, emotional well-being, and learning. Adequate sleep helps the body regulate its metabolic processes and weight control. Parents should establish a consistent bedtime schedule as well as bedtime routines to help children develop the habit of sleep. Parents who adopt positive and nurturing parenting styles support healthy sleep patterns in children.

· School-age children usually sleep independently; however, maintaining a normal bedtime routine is part of good sleep hygiene. Sleep hygiene includes a number of practices that support healthy sleep, like avoiding caffeine in the afternoon, having a cool, dark room, and a relaxing bedtime routine. For school-age children, this might involve a shower or bath, a snack, and reading time, either alone or with a parents. It is best to avoid screens, including smartphones and tablets, before bed.

· CDC RECOMMENDATIONS

· The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2013) recommends that newborns sleep between 16–18 hours per day. A preschool-age child should sleep between 11–12 hours per day. It is recommended that school-age children get nine to 11 hours of sleep per night. There is some room for individual variation between children, with some managing well on eight hours and others needing 12 hours a night to feel well. If a child is consistently sleeping less than seven hours or more than 12 hours a night, a consultation with a pediatrician is appropriate to assess their general health. Do keep in mind that children may occasionally vary normal sleep patterns temporarily due to illness or growth spurts.

NuNutrition

Children who do not have access to quality food perform poorly on tests of attention and memory. This lack of nutrition significantly affects learning. Both inadequate or poor quality food and too much food pose problems for children.

Parents should establish regular eating times and routines. In addition, parents should be certain that children are eating both breakfast and lunch, either at home or at school. Children require regular meals, and should have access to healthy snacks, within reason. For many parents, feeding children is a significant source of stress–mealtime battles are common and unhealthy.

Families help to create healthy eating habits when:

· They share regular meals.

· Have a variety of healthy snacks available.

· Avoid battles over food.

· Involve children in meal planning and cooking.

· Serve as a role model by making healthy food choices.

ASSISTANCE TO LOW-INCOME FAMILIES

If parents are unable to afford adequate food, programs exist in many communities to offer assistance. The SNAP or Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program is a federally funded program that provides money for food to families in need. In addition, local food banks and pantries can offer food assistance. School breakfast and lunch programs provide free or reduced cost meals to children, and in some low-income areas, dinners, snacks, or even backpacks loaded with snacks and food for the weekend are available.

Twenty to 30 percent of children in developed countries are obese (Brooks, 2013). Obesity is linked to significant health risks like heart disease and diabetes. The United States Department of Agriculture created the website, Choose My Plate, for consumers to have access to research-based recommendations on nutrition and physical exercise. The website contains nutritional and health recommendations from preschool-age to adulthood. The website also includes sample meal plans, grocery lists for shopping, calorie charts, and educational material to support lesson plans for educators.

trition

Children who do not have access to quality food perform poorly on tests of attention and memory. This lack of nutrition significantly affects learning. Both inadequate or poor quality food and too much food pose problems for children.

Parents should establish regular eating times and routines. In addition, parents should be certain that children are eating both breakfast and lunch, either at home or at school. Children require regular meals, and should have access to healthy snacks, within reason. For many parents, feeding children is a significant source of stress–mealtime battles are common and unhealthy.

Families help to create healthy eating habits when:

  • They share regular      meals.
  • Have a variety of      healthy snacks available.
  • Avoid battles over      food.
  • Involve children      in meal planning and cooking.
  • Serve as a role      model by making healthy food choices.

ASSISTANCE TO LOW-INCOME FAMILIES

If parents are unable to afford adequate food, programs exist in many communities to offer assistance. The SNAP or Supplemental Nutritional Assistance Program is a federally funded program that provides money for food to families in need. In addition, local food banks and pantries can offer food assistance. School breakfast and lunch programs provide free or reduced cost meals to children, and in some low-income areas, dinners, snacks, or even backpacks loaded with snacks and food for the weekend are available.

Twenty to 30 percent of children in developed countries are obese (Brooks, 2013). Obesity is linked to significant health risks like heart disease and diabetes. The United States Department of Agriculture created the website, Choose My Plate, for consumers to have access to research-based recommendations on nutrition and physical exercise. The website contains nutritional and health recommendations from preschool-age to adulthood. The website also includes sample meal plans, grocery lists for shopping, calorie charts, and educational material to support lesson plans for educators.

· The Parent’s Role

· A child entering the teenage years goes through many changes physically, emotionally, and cognitively. Older children and teens experience the physical and emotional changes associated with puberty, as well as changing cognitive skills. In addition, children develop and change socially as they move through the teen years, taking on new roles and responsibilities.

· Parents have an important role to provide emotional support and monitor and guide thinking and behavior of their children. Thoughtful and loving parenting in the teen years can facilitate a good relationship between parents and their teens, helping to support their teens in the transition from childhood to adulthood. Parents also need to be prepared to step back and let their maturing teen explore independence and gain confidence—but with a safety net—until they reach mature adulthood.

SSchool-Age Children

School-age children, or children from six to 12 years of age, are growing up. They have a range of new skills and abilities, but they also raise new issues. Parents must now support them in relationships with peers and siblings, behavior in the classroom, healthy life choices, and engagement with the larger world. In these years, children learn their parents’ and family’s personal values, as well as begin to recognize the values of their society as a whole.

Parents need to continue to work to develop positive relationships with their children, and to support their children’s ability to form new relationships outside of the immediate family circle. Parents continue to exert a significant influence on their children’s development. Physically, children now have many of the skills they need to write, manipulate small objects, and move their bodies in space. They can now learn to read and do math, and are capable of complex thought. Social development continues, with new and more complicated relationships.

Children, during the elementary school years, begin to encounter and engage with the outside world in new ways. They become responsible for some of their own choices about physical health, including food and physical activity, and often have new access to a variety of media, including television and the internet

· chool-Age Children

· School-age children, or chi

lThe Development of School-Age Children

School-age children continue to develop; however, this may be less obvious than in past years. Development at this stage includes, just as it did for the toddler and preschooler, cognitive and language development, emotional and social development, and physical development.

Many of the most noticeable developmental milestones in this age group are social, emotional or intellectual. Physical development continues, with increasing growth and overall coordination. Language development includes full pronunciation of all letters and sounds, as well as increasing vocabulary and understanding of grammar. Parents are most likely to understand and recognize changes in their child socially, emotionally and intellectually.

SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL MILESTONES

Between six and 12, children should:

· Show increasing independence from parents.

· Begin to think about their futures, including what they want to be when they grow up.

· Understand more about their place in the world.

· Pay more attention to friendships.

· Want to be liked and accepted.

As you can see, many of these milestones relate to the progressive and growing importance of peers, or same-age individuals, in the child’s social development. Parents should be sensitive and responsive to this, and encourage friendships for children. Conflicts with peers are common and can be emotionally quite upsetting.

MENTAL AND INTELLECTUAL MILESTONES

During the school-age years, children also develop mentally and intellectually. Children will:

· Show more interest in the thoughts and feelings of others.

· Improve their ability to talk about their own thoughts and feelings.

· Show significant and rapid development of mental skills.

These milestones illustrate the close connection between emotional and cognitive development. While parents can see their toddler gain new physical skills, they can see their school-age child gain new emotional skills.

dren from six to 12 years of age, are growing up. They have a range of School-age children spend more time away from parents and the home setting. They are in school during the day, and many are in after-school care in the afternoons. School-age children often have extracurricular activities, including sports and lessons.

They are learning to make friends and maintain relationships. Sibling issues also may occur during this stage. Children who were playmates as preschoolers may argue and fight now, while children who struggled as preschoolers may be each other’s best friends. In many cases, siblings will be the best of friends one minute and the worst of enemies only minutes later. Parenting and family dynamics has a significant impact on sibling relationships; however, no amount of parenting will eliminate sibling conflicts.

Parents can support children with the following actions.

new skills and abilities, but they also raise new issues. Parents must now support them in relationships with peers and siblings, behavior in thADOPTING AN AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING STYLE

Parents who adopt an authoritative parenting style support their children with a warm, emotionally supportive family environment that has an established discipline approach that focuses on natural and logical consequences rather than punishment. When parents interact in a positive manner with their children, the children learn positive social interaction skills and use these skills with peers and other adults. The authoritative parenting style ensures that children know the reasons for and the expected standards of behavior. The parents also consider the child’s perspective and include them in family decision making. This style of parenting encourages children to understand why certain social behaviors are required, and the child develops increased social competence.

e classroom, healthy life choices, and engagement with the larger world. InMAINTAINING SIBLING RELATIONSHIPS

Sibling relationships tend to reflect the quality of the parents’ marriage and the parent-child relationship with each child in the family (Brooks, 2013). When parents are positive, emotionally warm, and supportive to all the children in the family, siblings tend to have better relationships. Conflict between family members can cause depression, anxiety, and acting out behaviors in early adolescence. Sibling rivalry, or jealousy and conflict between siblings, is common even in positive and healthy families. In most cases, siblings do, by adulthood, get over sibling rivalry and become friends, but it can be a struggle for parents and families.

these years, children learn their parents’ and family’s personal values, MAINTAINING INVOLVEMENT WITH CHILDREN

Parents who are involved and talk to their child keep in touch with what is happening in their child’s life. This involvement helps the child to see the parent as a resource, someone who is interested in their life, and can help with emotional bonding. The parent can help the child talk through problem situations, possibly reinterpret problems, think of alternates to solve problems, and help their child to improve their social skills by practicing scenarios. When parents talk about community and world events, children learn about problems outside of their family circle. They have the opportunity to consider larger issues such as ethics and be part of a problem-solving discussion. Children also have the opportunity to learn about moral values.

· as well as begin to recognize the values of their society as a whole.

PMAINTAINING FAMILY RITUALS

Family rituals, or regular, shared activities, routines, and structure are important ways for family members to bond and maintain social ties. When parents play board games, cards, or read with their children, they build communication skills and have fun. This involvement creates emotional bonding with the family that increases the child’s emotional security. Families that have routines that involve eating together or enjoying certain activities together, have opportunities to talk and share memories.

· ENCOURAGING CHILDREN TO TAKE PART IN ACTIVITIES

· Parents can encourage their child to participate in hobbies, sports, or other activities as a way to build confidence, meet other people, and make friends. Hobbies, sports and activities should be chosen with the child’s interests and abilities in mind.

· Supporting Peer Relationships

· As friendships become increasingly important for children, parents need to support those developing friendships and help to provide their children with the tools necessary to communicate effectively in relationships.

· There are a number of ways parents can support children in developing healthy friendships.

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· PERSONALITIES

· While peer relationships are important, parents should also recognize that personality differences play a key role here. If the child is happy with only a few close friends, but functions well in the classroom and other activities and is doing well, he or she may simply be more introverted, or find time alone or in small groups re-energizing. If the child has a large number of friends and wants to be more involved, that’s simply personality as well. That child is more extroverted, or finds time with friends fulfilling.

· Difficult peer interactions can cause social anxiety, or an excessive and unreasonable fear of social situations, depression, or feelings of despondency, and make children not want to engage with others. If a child does not want to go to school, is avoiding the lunchroom, or refusing previously enjoyed activities, careful consideration of the cause is in order.

· · Is he being bullied in any way in the classroom?

· · Are there difficulties of any sort with another child, even if those are not related to bullying?

· · Does she have classmates to play with at recess and people to sit with at lunch?

· Open conversation with children can reveal some of these answers, but parents may also want to check in with teachers and counselors to see if they are aware of, or have seen, problems at school.

· A

· First, parents should try to get to know their children’s friends. Volunteering in the classroom, taking children on school or hobby-related outings, and having playdates are all ways to meet and get to know children’s friends and classmates. When a parent knows her child’s friends, she can help to set up times for the children to play together and help to support those friendships and interactions.

· Some children make friends easily, and keep their friends easily. These children understand, quite naturally, how to interact with others in positive ways. For these children, less support may be necessary–parents should keep an eye on interactions, and plan activities and playdates that work for both or all children involved.

· Other children have a much harder time making friends. Parents may need to be more involved in their child’s social life to promote healthy engagement with peers. Extracurricular activities can help children make friends with others with shared interests, and parents can help by scheduling playdates and encouraging their children to engage with others.

· Physical development or puberty in early adolescence begins with unseen hormonal changes in both girls and boys that lead to sexual maturity. Although each child or teen is different, the general range of puberty for girls can be between the ages of 8- 17 and for boys between ages 9–20. This range covers the beginning of puberty to the end of puberty, or full physical maturation.

· In middle childhood, both boys and girls grow at a relatively steady rate, with some spurts in growth. Height and size are often largely determined by heredity, and within a group of same-age children in middle childhood, variations in size of four to five inches are common. Nutrition can also impact childhood growth; inadequate caloric or nutrient intake may restrict growth, while excess caloric intake may contribute to obesity. Food intake typically increases during periods of significant growth. In addition, during middle childhood, children typically gain muscle mass, improve motor skills, and experience changes to the texture of the skin.

· Growth changes significantly during puberty. Girls typically gain height before boys–this is obvious if you have ever seen a group of middle school students! Within just a year or two, the boys will catch up, and often surpass the girls in height. For both boys and girls, around 25 percent of growth in height occurs during puberty.

· Puberty begins when the brain releases gonadotropin-releasing hormone, or GnRH for short. This hormone enters the pituitary gland and triggers the release of two additional hormones, luteinizing hormone (LH for short) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH for short).

· In boys, these hormones trigger the production of testosterone or the male sex hormone, and of sperm cells necessary for reproduction. In girls, the same release of hormones triggers the ovaries to begin producing estrogen. Girls are born with egg cells for reproduction; however, estrogen is necessary to begin the menstrual cycle and for the release of egg cells.

· Girls experience a growth spurt in height, the growth of breasts, and development of sex organs, typically having their first menstrual period by around 12.5 years old.

· Boys initially experience growth of the testes and scrotum in early puberty. Approximately a year later, they experience a growth spurt in height along with growth in the penis, facial, and body hair.

· Individuals may experience these signs of puberty in a different order, and some may develop earlier or later. In addition, some teens may take longer to complete puberty than others.

The early signs of puberty in girls include:

  • The development of breast buds,      typically around age 10.
  • Peak growth around one year      after the onset of puberty.
  • Menstruation beginning around      18 months to two years after the onset of puberty.

If a girl begins to show signs of puberty before age eight, or is not showing signs of puberty by age 13, it is appropriate to seek medical guidance from a pediatrician. Signs of puberty before age eight are called precocious puberty.

· Menstrual Cycle

· The menstrual cycle causes a number of physiological changes each month. During the first half of the menstrual cycle, levels of estrogen (the hormone most closely associated with female reproduction) in the body rise. Estrogen levels cause the lining of the uterus to grow and thicken. At the midpoint in the cycle, around day 14 of a 28- day cycle, the ovaries release an egg. The egg travels through the fallopian tube and into the uterus. The three days before and the day of ovulation are the most likely times for conception to occur. If the egg is not fertilized, it begins to disintegrate and hormone levels fall. Around 14 days after ovulation, the unfertilized egg and the uterine lining are shed during menstruation, or a period.

· Menstrual cycles can range from 21 to 35 days in length and are counted from the first day of the menstrual period. Girls cycles are typically quite irregular initially, becoming more regular with age. Periods usually last three to five days, and can vary from relatively light to quite heavy. Discomfort, cramping, and moodiness are all commonly associated with the days leading up to the menstrual period, as well as the period itself. Parents may notice cycles, including moodiness, beginning before their daughter gets her first period. Vaginal discharge may begin, and is quite normal.

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rents need to continue to work to develop positive relationships with their children, and to support their children’s ability to form new relationships outside of the immediate family circle. Parents continue to ePuberty for Boys

For boys, the early signs of puberty are:

· Enlargement of the testes and thinning and reddening of the scrotum, typically around age 11; however, this can occur between ages nine to 14.

· Peak growth around two years after the onset of puberty.

If a boy shows signs of puberty before age nine, or is not showing signs of puberty by age 14, it is appropriate to seek advice from the pediatrician.

· xert a significant influence on their children’s development. Physically, Along with growth in the testes and penis, boys will typically begin to experience erections, and, in some cases, nocturnal emissions. Erections can happen because of sexual thoughts or fantasies or for no reason at all, and are quite common in pubescent boys.children now have many of the skills they need to write, manipulate small objects, and move their bodies in space. They can now learn to read and do mBoys’ voices will deepen, sometimes cracking as they change. This is also a normal and typical part of puberty, and can occur at different times during puberty for different individuals.

· ath, and are capable of complex thought. Social development continues, Both boys and girls will experience the growth of increased body hair in early puberty. This includes both armpit and pubic hair. Initially the hair will be quite fine, becoming more coarse over time. As parents and teachers know, this stage is also accompanied by an increase in body odor. It is quite important to stress the need for good personal hygiene, more frequent bathing, and the use of deodorant to prevent odor. Children and teens may not be aware of their own odor, and gentle reminders from parents are important.

· wAcne may also begin. Parents can encourage good skin care along with other forms of personal hygiene, and should be aware that acne can be quite upsetting for teens, and cause difficulties with self-confidence and self-esteem. If gentle cleansing and over-the-counter products don’t help, or a teen is experiencing painful cystic acne, a health care provider can offer alternatives.

aPhysical Growth

Physical growth in puberty is not only growth in height, but also changes in the shape of the body. For boys, the shoulders become wider and muscle mass increases, along with the size of the penis and testes. Girls will typically become curvier, developing both breasts and hips. Breast discomfort is quite normal, as is some asymmetry in breast growth and development.

· Some boys may experience slight breast growth in puberty. This typically resolves by the end of puberty.

· Most girls will gain weight during puberty; this is normal and not of concern. Should weight gain seem concerning or abnormal, discuss it with a pediatrician.

Parents should be aware of the physical changes of puberty and should, before puberty begins, make sure that their child fully understands what to expect with puberty. It is important to recognize that these discussions should include conversations about sexuality, including normal feelings and desires, values about sexuality, and masturbation. For many parents, this is an ideal time to talk about relationships, respect, and consent as well. This will encourage open dialog between parent and child, and help with future discussions about human sexuality as teens enter a stage when dating and sexual activity become more common.

A teenager’s schedule often involves some combination of school, family commitments, and other extra activities like sports, work, social activities, and community commitments. It is a busy time, and the teenager can become sleep deprived, and have poor nutrition. This lack of sleep will complicate a teenager’s physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development.

Parents can use the following techniques to support the physical development of teenagers:

· Provide quality nutrition. Keep easy, healthy snacks accessible, and maintain family meal traditions.

· Talk about the importance of sleep and exercise. Maintain your own health to set a good example.

· Be aware of changes in your child’s body, discreetly monitoring their health.

· Talk with the child about physical and emotional changes, as well as behavior.

· Provide your child with honest and comprehensive sex education. Be certain that they know about contraception and safe sex, even if teen sexual activity is against your personal values.

· Encourage teens to be involved in other activities to build confidence and opportunities for friendships (e.g., hobbies, sports, or community volunteer opportunities).

· Schedule annual well-child exams, but offer the option of moving to an adult health care provider as your child gets older, and maintain preventative health measures.

· Seek advice from school counseling staff or other child professionals when you have questions or concerns.

While parenting teens requires less physical involvement from parents than caring for younger children, continuing to work to support the physical health, well-being and development of teens continues to be important. Parents do still have some control over the physical health of teens, but providing support and care helps teens to feel loved, nurtured, and supported.

· nd more co

· When parents promote, establish, and maintain healthy routines and lifestyles, they provide their children with the foundation for healthy physical, emotional, social, and intellectual growth. Healthy lifestyles include a variety of factors. You likely immediately thought of exercise, or perhaps food choices. Healthy lifestyles include safe and appropriate behaviors, exercise, food choices, emotional support, self-care and adequate sleep on a nightly basis.mplicated relationships.

· Children, during the elementary school years, begin to encounter and eParents can prevent injuries to their children by adding safeguards to dangerous areas of their home—particularly in the kitchen, bathroom, and stair areas. Some child-proofing devices include electrical outlet covers, cupboard and window guards, stair gates, medicine safety caps, and devices to control the temperature of hot water in the home. Some of these things are less important as children get older–there is no need for a baby gate with an eight-year-old; however, parents should use thoughtful and honest judgment when considering what is and is not appropriate for children.

nSometimes finding the time to exercise can be difficult. Families can benefit from organizing or participating in physical activities together. Parents can consider family bike rides on bike trails, family walks or hikes, or even playing online smartphone games that encourage walking or running. Some families enjoy swimming together, and park visits are more fun for children when mom and dad join in. For busy families these activities also let the parents get much-needed exercise.

· ORGANIZED SPORTS

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Organized sports are fine for children, but should be developmentally appropriate, both physically and cognitively. In addition, children should enjoy the sports they participate in–a child who hates team sports may like a tumbling class or one who hates martial arts may love soccer. While many children’s sports activities are relatively casual and low-risk, parents of more devoted athletes or those in higher-risk activities should be particularly conscientious about safety. Examples of less-safe sports and athletic activities include contact sports, like football and physically strenuous sports, like gymnastics and ballet dance. In some cases, parents should pay special attention to issues of weight connected to the sport–this is often more of an issue for girls than boys.

· Parenting school-age children requires balancing rules and discipline with support and communication. Parents need to facilitate childhood friendships and peer interactions, provide support for educational efforts, encourage healthy habits, and monitor and supervise media use for their school-age children.

· Increasingly, parents may find themselves torn between or struggling to manage these sometimes conflicting goals. Children enjoy screen time, but too much of it is a bad thing. Finding the time for healthy meals and exercise is a challenge, and managing all of these along with school schedules can leave parents feeling frayed and overwhelmed. When parents maintain clear goals and priorities, they may find that they can more easily meet the demands of parenthood.

· Parents continue to play an important role in their child’s development through the teen years, from the beginning of puberty to young adulthood; however, that role changes over time. To maintain a strong relationship with teens, parents need to gradually change their behavior to that of a supportive advisor, rather than a ruler. They need to spend the teen years preparing their children for independence and success with kindness, guidance and wisdom.

· KEY TERMS
 

· References

· American Academy of Pediatrics (2016). Car seats: information for families. Retrieved from https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/on-the-go/Pages/Car-Safety-Seats-Information-for-Families.aspx

· Brooks, J. (2013). The process of parenting (9th ed). NewYork: McGraw-Hill.

· CDC. (2008). Physical activity guidelines for Americans fact sheet for health professionals on physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/downloads/pa_fact_sheet_children.pdf

· CDC. (2013). How much sleep do I need? Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/sleep/about_sleep/how_much_sleep.htm Nelson, L. (2014) Menstruation and the Menstrual Cycle. Retrieved from https://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/menstruation.html .